Treatment of primary and secondary osteoarthritis
of the knee.
Surgical removal of flaps of cartilage of bone can sometimes dramatically improve the joint but results can be unpredictable with some dogs remaining quite lame despite surgery, due to underlying abnormal development of the joint with a poor fit to the joint or the secondary osteoarthritis
The exclusion criteria were confirmed or suspected secondary osteoarthritis
, trauma, congenital abnormalities, endocrinological impairments, metabolic disturbances, other musculoskeletal disorders, administration of oral corticosteroids and analgesics within 10 days before admission, long-acting corticosteroids, and pregnancy and nursing.
(1) concluded that 'prolonged immobilisation of a rabbit's hip caused chondrocyte apoptosis, but that a reduction of the hip joint may avoid apoptosis, thus preventing secondary osteoarthritis
. On this point I agree with the authors.
The exclusion criteria are secondary osteoarthritis
for any reason, previous surgical or trauma wounds on the anterior aspect of the knee, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus or preexisting vascular deficits.
Further complicating her case, the friction caused by the abnormal and continuous gritting of the joint, caused the patient's right hip centre to be 1.6cm above her left hip and also lead to the development of severe secondary osteoarthritis
. The congenital condition, which is usually diagnosed at birth and early stages in life, had gone undetected throughout the patient's life, until the team at Aster discovered the cause of the patient's discomfort.
Finally, two trials did not specify inclusion of primary or secondary osteoarthritis
described a high rate of secondary osteoarthritis
in patients treated for PVNS using an open approach with surgical dislocation of the hip .
(3) Typically, CPPD is found in older aged individuals, with an onset of 30 years of age and a peak at 60 years (2), CPPD is often associated with primary and secondary osteoarthritis
, which results in decreased joint congruency and degeneration due to the aging process (1).
Wiecha et al., "Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in synovial fluid of patients with primary and secondary osteoarthritis
of the knee joint," Osteoarthritis and Cartilage, vol.
Kowalsky and Levine  describe the significance of the humeral head defect as being threefold: it serves as a propagation point which makes the proximal humerus susceptible to fractures of the anatomic neck, it makes the GH joint susceptible to secondary osteoarthritis
, and the size of the impression defect determines the stable arc of curvature of the GH articulation.
"Treatment of primary and secondary osteoarthritis
of the knee." Evid Rep Technol Assess (Full Rep).