"We collectively are calling for all service delivery points within the value chain of the criminal justice system to exhibit speed, sensitivity and responsive attitudes to reduce, and ultimately eradicate secondary victimisation
Reporting rates for sex crimes are already low given concerns over "secondary victimisation
" in hearings - and conviction rates are lower still.
For all practical purposes, the first step towards helping a victim of violent crime is to prevent him/her from secondary victimisation
. Also known as post crime victimisation or double victimisation, this is, in other words, victimisation following on from the original crime.
"The main purpose of the juvenile justice system is to avoid secondary victimisation
of the child and to offer rehabilitation rather than punishment for juvenile criminal behaviour" Valerie explained.
Negative reactions from others can create experiences of secondary victimisation
, which are as difficult to cope with as the effects of the victimisation experience itself (e.g.
The secondary victimisation
is the blame and shame, and silence explores the situation."
Mr Hinchliff thought carefully about going public as a victim: "We are terribly aware about 'secondary victimisation
' when this is reported in the media.
Don MacKechnie, vice-president of the College of Emergency Medicine, said expecting a stab victim to meet an attacker amounted to "secondary victimisation
However, Victims' Voice claims, factors that may impede their recovery include continued exposure to secondary victimisation
such as exclusion from proceedings.
The final chapter, authored by Walters, evaluates the potential relevance of restorative justice for changing offenders without resulting in secondary victimisation
for those impacted by hate crime.