atmospheric pressure

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pressure

 (P) [presh´ur]
force per unit area.
arterial pressure (arterial blood pressure) blood pressure (def. 2).
atmospheric pressure the pressure exerted by the atmosphere, usually considered as the downward pressure of air onto a unit of area of the earth's surface; the unit of pressure at sea level is one atmosphere. Pressure decreases with increasing altitude.
barometric pressure atmospheric p.
blood pressure
2. pressure of blood on walls of any blood vessel.
capillary pressure the blood pressure in the capillaries.
central venous pressure see central venous pressure.
cerebral perfusion pressure the mean arterial pressure minus the intracranial pressure; a measure of the adequacy of cerebral blood flow.
cerebrospinal pressure the pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid, normally 100 to 150 mm Hg.
continuous positive airway pressure see continuous positive airway pressure.
filling pressure see mean circulatory filling pressure.
high blood pressure hypertension.
intracranial pressure see intracranial pressure.
intraocular pressure the pressure exerted against the outer coats by the contents of the eyeball.
intrapleural pressure (intrathoracic pressure) pleural pressure.
intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure elevated positive end-expiratory pressure and dynamic pulmonary hyperinflation caused by insufficient expiratory time or a limitation on expiratory flow. It cannot be routinely measured by a ventilator's pressure monitoring system but is measurable only using an expiratory hold maneuver done by the clinician. Its presence increases the work needed to trigger the ventilator, causes errors in the calculation of pulmonary compliance, may cause hemodynamic compromise, and complicates interpretation of hemodynamic measurements. Called also auto-PEEP and intrinsic PEEP.
maximal expiratory pressure maximum expiratory pressure.
maximal inspiratory pressure the pressure during inhalation against a completely occluded airway; used to evaluate inspiratory respiratory muscle strength and readiness for weaning from mechanical ventilation. A maximum inspiratory pressure above −25 cm H2O is associated with successful weaning.
maximum expiratory pressure (MEP) a measure of the strength of respiratory muscles, obtained by having the patient exhale as strongly as possible against a mouthpiece; the maximum value is near total lung capacity.
maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP) the inspiratory pressure generated against a completely occluded airway; used to evaluate inspiratory respiratory muscle strength and readiness for weaning from mechanical ventilation. A maximum inspiratory pressure above −25 cm H2O is associated with successful weaning.
mean airway pressure the average pressure generated during the respiratory cycle.
mean circulatory filling pressure a measure of the average (arterial and venous) pressure necessary to cause filling of the circulation with blood; it varies with blood volume and is directly proportional to the rate of venous return and thus to cardiac output.
negative pressure pressure less than that of the atmosphere.
oncotic pressure the osmotic pressure of a colloid in solution.
osmotic pressure the pressure required to stop osmosis through a semipermeable membrane between a solution and pure solvent; it is proportional to the osmolality of the solution. Symbol π.
partial pressure the pressure exerted by each of the constituents of a mixture of gases.
peak pressure in mechanical ventilation, the highest pressure that occurs during inhalation.
plateau pressure in mechanical ventilation, the pressure measured at the proximal airway during an end-inspiratory pause; a reflection of alveolar pressure.
pleural pressure the pressure between the visceral pleura and the thoracic pleura in the pleural cavity. Called also intrapleural or intrathoracic pressure.
positive pressure pressure greater than that of the atmosphere.
positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) a method of control mode ventilation in which positive pressure is maintained during expiration to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange. A PEEP higher than the critical closing pressure prevents alveolar collapse and can markedly improve the arterial Po2 in patients with a lowered functional residual capacity, as in acute respiratory failure.
Effects of the application of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) on the alveoli. A, Atelectatic alveoli before PEEP application. B, Optimal PEEP application has reinflated alveoli to normal volume. C, Excessive PEEP application overdistends the alveoli and compresses adjacent pulmonary capillaries, creating dead space with its attendant hypercapnia. From Pierce, 1995.
pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) (pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP)) intravascular pressure, reflecting the left ventricular end diastolic pressure, measured by a swan-ganz catheter wedged into a small pulmonary artery to block the flow from behind.
pulse pressure the difference between the systolic and diastolic pressures. If the systolic pressure is 120 mm Hg and the diastolic pressure is 80 mm Hg, the pulse pressure is 40 mm Hg; the normal pulse pressure is between 30 and 40 mm Hg.
urethral pressure the pressure inwards exerted by the walls of the urethra, which must be counteracted in order for urine to flow through; see also urethral pressure profile.
venous pressure the blood pressure in the veins; see also central venous pressure.
water vapor pressure the tension exerted by water vapor molecules, 47 mm Hg at normal body temperature.
wedge pressure blood pressure measured by a small catheter wedged into a vessel, occluding it; see also pulmonary capillary wedge pressure and wedged hepatic vein pressure.
wedged hepatic vein pressure the venous pressure measured with a catheter wedged into the hepatic vein. The difference between wedged and free hepatic vein pressures is used to locate the site of obstruction in portal hypertension; it is elevated in that due to cirrhosis, but low in cardiac ascites or portal vein thrombosis.

bar·o·met·ric pres·sure (PB),

the absolute pressure of the ambient atmosphere, varying with weather, altitude, etc.; expressed in millibars (meteorology) or mm Hg or torr (respiratory physiology); at sea level, 1 atmosphere (atm, 760 mm Hg or torr) is equivalent to: 14.69595 lb/in2, 1013.25 millibars, 1013.25 × 106 dynes/cm2, and, in SI units, 101,325 pascals (Pa).
References in periodicals archive ?
The frequency of pneumonia was determined to be increased when the sea-level pressure was the highest and at high pressure levels.
Caption: Figure 3: (a) Average annual sea-level pressure in the CNRM-CM5.1 ensemble mean, (b) its bias against the NOAA-CIRES 20th Century Reanalysis, version 2c, and (c) differences between ensemble members with the highest/lowest sea-level pressure value in individual grid points.
Caption: Figure 5: Average seasonal sea-level pressure bias in the CNRM-CM5.1 ensemble mean for the 1956-2005 period: (a) boreal spring (March-May), (b) boreal summer (June-August), (c) boreal autumn (September-November), and (d) boreal winter (December- February).
5B; Macdonald et al., 2005), and observed from 1989 to 1997, reflects the coexistence of regions of high and low sea-level pressure in the Canadian Arctic in late summer and early autumn (Proshutinsky et al., 2002; Rigor et al., 2002).
A southeasterly shift in the sea-level pressure high associated with the low NAM index results in a predominance of northeasterly winds and advection of ice away from the shore.
For reference, the sea-level pressure and 10 m wind for the control run are shown in Figure 11.
The two metrics chosen due to their close association with cyclone intensity include the cyclone minimum mean sea-level pressure and maximum 10 m wind speed.
Arguably, the most important metric to determine the strength of cyclones is the minimum sea-level pressure. When comparing wind farm size and the perturbation to cyclone minimum sea-level pressure, unique trends appear.
In five of six cases, most wind farm sizes increase the minimum sea-level pressure in the cyclone, thus weakening the midlatitude cyclone.
Caption: Figure 4: Mean anomaly fields over the detected 21 days with respect to the 40-year climatology: (a) 500 hPa geopotential height (gpm); (b) sea-level pressure (hPa); (c) 850 hPa air temperature (k); (d) 500 hPa air temperature (K) (source: http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd/data/composites/day/).
"In combination with climate change predictions by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and in the absence of improvements to reef management and human impacts, sea-level pressures could tip the reef over the edge, potentially drowning it for good," Belinda Dechnik from the university, who was also lead author of the study, said in (http://sydney.edu.au/news-opinion/news/2017/01/06/great-barrier-reef-almost-drowned.html) a statement.
An El Nino event occurs when east and central Pacific sea surface temperatures are much warmer than usual which often signal wide-scale climate change around the globe affecting winds, precipitation, sea-level pressures and temperatures.