Schistosomiasis in pre-school-age children and their mothers in Chikhwawa district, Malawi with notes on characterization of schistosomes
can cause cercarial dermatitis (swimmer's itch) in persons exposed to either freshwater or brackish water in which infected birds contaminate the water and where the intermediate host snails are found.
Brant, "Avian schistosomes
and outbreaks of cercarial dermatitis," Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol.
Although it has been well recognized that regulatory T cells play important roles in regulating immune response to infection, the mechanism involved in the regulatory function to schistosome
infection has remained largely unclear.
Bradley, "A simple and rapid method for counting schistosome
eggs in urine," Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol.
It has been reported that the rate of reinfection with schistosome
parasites following Praziquantel treatment is faster with Schistosoma mansoni than with Schistosoma haematobium [25, 49-51].
alexandrina snail, which is neither influenced by the snail's age, the genetic origin nor by schistosome
However, PZQ does not prevent re-infections, has a limited effect on developed liver and spleen lesions, and is inactive against juvenile schistosomes
(Ramalhete et al.
are usually greyish or white worms with a length of 7-20 mm, having a cylindrical shape with two ending suckers, a blind digestive tract, a complex tegument, and reproductive organs.
The ecology of marine dermatitis-producing schistosomes
12) International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization (1994) Schistosomes
, liver flukes and Helicobacter pylori.
Chemotherapeutic approaches to schistosomes
: current knowledge and outlook.