Scaphopoda

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Scaphopoda

a class of primitive molluscs, possessing a tube-like shell open at both ends.
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The scaphopods (or "tusk shells") burrow into sea-floor sediment using their muscular "foot" and live head-down.
Potential trace-makers proposed for Protovirgularia include crabs (Gumbel, 1879), annelids or arthropods (Richter, 1941; Volk, 1961; Claus, 1965; Greiner, 1972), scaphopods (Seilacher and Seilacher, 1994), and bivalves (e.g., Hakes, 1977; Han and Pickerill, 1994; Seilacher and Seilacher, 1994, Mangano et al., 1998).
Description of Tertiary Mollusks (Additions to gastropods, scaphopods, pelecypods: Nuculidae to Malleidae).- USGS Prof.
rugosa was found inside shells of the scaphopods Fissidentalium megathyris and Rhabdus dalli, surrounded by mud.
For instance, in bivalves and scaphopods the cleavage pattern of the 2d cell, the first somatoblast, completely differs from the cleavage pattern of 2d in gastropods and polyplacophores.
Marine molluscs, including bivalves, gastropods and scaphopods, were recovered by dredging at depths of 3-82 m in Expedition Fiord, Axel Heiberg Island, Canada.