Sarcocystis


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Wikipedia.

Sarcocystis

 [sahr″ko-sis´tis]
a genus of coccidian protozoa parasitic in birds, reptiles, and mammals, including humans, cattle, horses, sheep, swine, and rabbits and other rodents, occurring as elongated cylindrical bodies (sarcocysts) in the host's muscles. They have an obligatory two-host life cycle, involving sexual reproduction in the definitive host (a carnivore) and asexual reproduction, including schizogony and sarcocyst formation, which occurs in the intermediate host. Infection is transmitted by ingestion of the sporocysts in the feces passed by infected animals. See also sarcocystosis.
Sarcocystis boviho´minis a species for which cattle are the specific intermediate hosts and humans the definitive hosts; it causes intestinal sarcocystosis in humans. It was formerly considered to be combined with S. suihominis in a single species, S. hominis (Isospora hominis).
Sarcocystis lindeman´ni a species causing human infection, most cases of which are asymptomatic, although it may cause polymyositis sometimes associated with eosinophilia.
Sarcocystis suiho´minis a species for which swine are the specific intermediate hosts and humans the definitive hosts; it causes intestinal sarcocystosis in humans. It was formerly considered to form a single species with S. bovihominis, called S. hominis (Isospora hominis).

Sarcocystis

(sar'kō-sis'tis),
A genus of protozoan parasites, related to the sporozoan genera Eimeria, Isospora, and Toxoplasma, and placed in a distinct family, Sarcocystidae, but with the above genera in the same suborder, Eimeriina, within the subclass Coccidia, class Sporozoea, and phylum Apicomplexa. Tissue stages of Sarcocystis are usually seen as thick-walled cylindric or (often extremely large [1 cm or more]) fusiform cysts (Miescher tubes) in reptile, bird, or mammal striated muscles. Cysts are smooth in the house mouse form or with radial spines (cytophaneres) in sheep or rabbit; contents may be compartmentalized by septa. Variably shaped spores (Rainey corpuscles) probably are peripheral rounded cells (sporoblasts, cytomeres) that divide to form mature "spores" (bradyzoites), motile bodies when released from the cyst; sexual stages have been described in tissue cultures. These parasites are abundant but rarely of pathogenic significance. Humans who have ingested meat containing the mature sarcocysts serve as the definitive hosts; fever, severe diarrhea, abdominal pain, and weight loss have been reported in a small number of immunocompromised hosts. When humans accidentally ingest oocysts from other animal stool sources, the sarcocysts that develop in human muscle appear to cause no inflammatory response.
[sarco- + G. kystis, bladder]
References in periodicals archive ?
Pszenny et al., "Systems-based analysis of the Sarcocystis neurona genome identifies pathways that contribute to a heteroxenous life cycle," MBio, vol.
La frecuencia de infeccion por Sarcocystis spp., asi como el tipo de muestra se establecio en base a estudios sobre la sarcocystosis en bovinos de America del Sur [8, 33, 34].
Intramuscular sarcocystis in two beluga whales and an atlantic white-sided dolphin from the St.
Despite the prevalence of Sarcocystis in animals, in so far, a comprehensive molecular diagnostic report, have been presented.
Prorocentrum micans (Dinophyta) and Sarcocystis rileyi (Apicomplexa, Sarcocystidae) were selected as out-group taxa in the SSU rRNA and LSU rRNA trees, respectively.
For each sample, we will run toxicology tests to determine heavy metal accumulation, a PCR test to assess the presence of Trypansoma cruzi, and fluorescent antibody tests to determine whether any of the following are present: Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis neurona, Sarcocystis falcatula, Besnoitia darlingli Neospora caninurn, Leptospira, and Encephalitozoon cuniculi.
The parasite, which Grigg and his colleagues dubbed Sarcocystis pinnipedi, invades cells and can cause inflammation that damages tissues.
Earlier, in 2012, Dr Grigg and his team indentified a new strain of a parasite, Sarcocystis, which killed over 400 grey seals inhabitant in North Atlantic.