Salmonella

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Salmonella

 [sal″mo-nel´ah]
a genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, usually motile, rod-shaped bacteria; this genus is very complex and has been described by several different systems of nomenclature. Clinical laboratories frequently report salmonellae as one of three species, differentiated on the basis of serologic and biochemical reactions: S. ty´phi, S. cho´lerae-su´is, and S. enteri´tidis; the last contains all serotypes except the first two. In this system (the Ewing scheme) many strains familiarly named as species are designated as serotypes of S. enteritidis (for example, S. paraty´phi becomes S. enteri´tidis serotype paraty´phi A). Salmonellae may also be grouped into five subgenera (I–V) on the basis of biochemical reactions and further into species on the basis of antigenic reactions: subgenus I contains most of the species.



Salmonella species are widely distributed in other animals, frequently producing disease that can be transmitted to humans. In humans pathogenic species cause enteric fevers (typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever), septicemia, and gastroenteritis. The most frequent manifestation is food poisoning. Pathogenic species include S. arizo´nae (salmonellosis), S. cho´lerae-su´is (a strain pathogenic for pigs that may infect humans), S. enteri´tidis (gastroenteritis; also see discussion of Ewing scheme above), S. paraty´phi (or S. enteri´tidis serotype paraty´phi A) (paratyphoid fever), S. ty´phi (typhoid fever), and S. typhimu´rium (or S. enteri´tidis serotype typhimu´rium (food poisoning and paratyphoid fever).

salmonella

 [sal″mo-nel´ah]
any organism of the genus Salmonella. adj., adj salmonel´lal.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

Salmonella

(sal'mō-nel'ă), Avoid the mispronunciation săm'ō-nel'la.
A genus of aerobic to facultatively anaerobic bacteria (family Enterobacteriaceae) containing gram-negative rods that are either motile or nonmotile; motile cells are peritrichous. These organisms do not liquefy gelatin or produce indole and vary in their production of hydrogen sulfide; they use citrate as a sole source of carbon; their metabolism is fermentative, producing acid and usually gas from glucose, but they do not attack lactose; most are aerogenic, but Salmonella typhi never produces gas; they are pathogenic for humans and other animals. The type species is Salmonella choleraesuis.
[Daniel E. Salmon, U.S. pathologist, 1850-1914]
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

salmonella

(săl′mə-nĕl′ə)
n. pl. salmo·nellae (-nĕl′ē) or salmo·nellas or salmonella
1. Any of various rod-shaped bacteria of the genus Salmonella, especially S. enterica, which cause food poisoning, typhoid, and paratyphoid fever in humans and various infectious diseases in domestic animals. Salmonella bacteria are divided into numerous serotypes on the basis of certain antigens found in the cell wall and flagella.
2. Salmonellosis.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

Sal·mo·nel·la

(sal'mō-nel'ă)
A genus of aerobic to facultatively anaerobic bacteria containing gram-negative rods that are either motile or nonmotile. They are pathogenic for humans and other animals. The type species is S. enterica choleraesuis.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

Salmonella

A genus of bacteria containing over 2000 strains, no longer considered to be separate species. Some have species-specific infectivity. About half of the strains are known to cause FOOD POISONING in humans. Salmonella organisms also cause TYPHOID and PARATYPHOID fevers. Common contaminants of food include Salmonella typhimurium , S. hadar , S. enteritidis and S. virchow . (Daniel E. Salmon, American pathologist, 1850–1914)
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005

Salmonella

a genus of bacteria containing a wide range of species that are pathogenic for man and other animals. They normally inhabit the intestinal tract. Examples include Salmonella typhi which causes typhoid fever and Salmonella typhimurium which causes severe gastroenteritis (salmonellosis).
Collins Dictionary of Biology, 3rd ed. © W. G. Hale, V. A. Saunders, J. P. Margham 2005

Sal·mo·nel·la

(sal'mō-nel'ă)
Genus of aerobic to facultatively anaerobic bacteria pathogenic for humans and other animals. The type species is S. choleraesuis.
Medical Dictionary for the Dental Professions © Farlex 2012

Patient discussion about Salmonella

Q. What are the symptoms of salmonella infection?

A. Dehydration is the principal clinical concern. The incubation period – the time between ingestion of Salmonella bacteria and the onset of illness – varies from six to 72 hours.Salmonella can cause three different kinds of illness: gastroenteritis, typhoid fever, and bacteremia.Symptoms of Salmonella gastroenteritis include diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, nausea, and/or vomiting.In mild cases diarrhea may be non-bloody, occur several times per day, and not be very voluminous; in severe cases it may be frequent, bloody and/or mucoid, and of high volume. Fever generally occurs in the 100°F to 102°F (38°C to 39°C) range. Vomiting is less common than diarrhea. Headaches, myalgias (muscle pain), and arthralgias (joint pain) are often reported as well.Whereas the diarrhea typically lasts 24 to 72 hours, patients often report fatigue and other nonspecific symptoms lasting 7 days or longer. For the full article: http://www.about-salmonella.com/salmonella_symptoms_risks

Q. How can I catch Salmonella? Yesterday I ate a mousse which was made from raw eggs. Could I have caught Salmonella?

A. Salmonella infections usually resolve in 5-7 days and often do not require treatment unless the patient becomes severely dehydrated or the infection spreads from the intestines. Persons with severe diarrhea may require rehydration, often with intravenous fluids (IV). Antibiotics are not usually necessary unless the infection spreads from the intestines.

Q. What is salmonellosis? I heard on the news that there was a salmonella outbreak recently. What is it?

A. The Salmonella germ is actually a group of bacteria that can cause diarrheal illness in humans. They are microscopic living creatures that pass from the feces of people or animals, to other people or other animals. There are many different kinds of Salmonella bacteria.

More discussions about Salmonella
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References in periodicals archive ?
(49) This approach has led to considerably faster and specific methods for the detection of Samonella and Shigella contamination in water, although the analysis time is still measured in hours.
The fresh egg whites used for the meringue to top the Baked Alaska are heated to kill Samonella, although a pasteurized frozen product that whips or a reconstituted pasteurized dried egg powder can also be used.