a genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, usually motile, rod-shaped bacteria; this genus is very complex and has been described by several different systems of nomenclature. Clinical laboratories frequently report salmonellae as one of three species, differentiated on the basis of serologic and biochemical reactions: S. ty´phi, S. cho´lerae-su´is,
and S. enteri´tidis
; the last contains all serotypes except the first two. In this system (the Ewing scheme) many strains familiarly named as species are designated as serotypes of S. enteritidis
(for example, S. paraty´phi
becomes S. enteri´tidis
serotype paraty´phi A
). Salmonellae may also be grouped into five subgenera (I–V) on the basis of biochemical reactions and further into species on the basis of antigenic reactions: subgenus I contains most of the species.Salmonella
species are widely distributed in other animals, frequently producing disease that can be transmitted to humans. In humans pathogenic species cause enteric fevers (typhoid fever
and paratyphoid fever
, and gastroenteritis
. The most frequent manifestation is food poisoning
. Pathogenic species include S. arizo´nae
), S. cho´lerae-su´is
(a strain pathogenic for pigs that may infect humans), S. enteri´tidis
; also see discussion of Ewing scheme above), S. paraty´phi
(or S. enteri´tidis
serotype paraty´phi A
) (paratyphoid fever
), S. ty´phi
), and S. typhimu´rium
(or S. enteri´tidis
and paratyphoid fever
any organism of the genus Salmonella. adj., adj salmonel´lal.
Salmonella (sal'mō-nel'ă), Avoid the mispronunciation săm'ō-nel'la.
A genus of aerobic to facultatively anaerobic bacteria (family Enterobacteriaceae) containing gram-negative rods that are either motile or nonmotile; motile cells are peritrichous. These organisms do not liquefy gelatin or produce indole and vary in their production of hydrogen sulfide; they use citrate as a sole source of carbon; their metabolism is fermentative, producing acid and usually gas from glucose, but they do not attack lactose; most are aerogenic, but Salmonella typhi never produces gas; they are pathogenic for humans and other animals. The type species is Salmonella choleraesuis.
[Daniel E. Salmon, U.S. pathologist, 1850-1914]
a genus of gram-negative, non-lactose fermenting, medium-sized, rod-shaped, bacteria, members of the family Enterobacteriaceae
, most species having flagella and pili. The genus contains one species which has been divided into seven subgroups and a very large number of serotypes. Most species pathogenic for warm-blooded animals are in subgroup I (S. enterica
). Subgroups IIIa (S. salamae
) and IIIb (S. arizonae
) include some species occasionally pathogenic for animals and birds. The salmonella include the typhoid-paratyphoid bacilli and bacteria usually pathogenic for lower animals but which are often transmitted to humans. They cause salmonellosis
which has a number of manifestations and some are specific causes of abortion.
causes abortion in horses.
Salmonella abortusovis, Salmonella montevideo
cause abortion in sheep.
the name now applied to subgroup IIIa, these organisms cause severe enteritis and septicemia in chicks and turkey poults.
causes enteritis in cattle and horses.
Salmonella choleraesuis biotype Kunzendorf
causes septicemic and enteric salmonellosis of swine. Called the hog cholera bacillus because of the similarity of the clinical diseases.
causes septicemia, meningitis, enteritis and abortion in cattle and abortion in sheep.
a common cause of gastroenteritis in humans. Recorded also in most domestic animal species and fowl.
an occasional isolate in horses.
DT 104 R-types ACSSuT infects all animal species and humans, but particularly cattle and in many countries DT104 (determinant type/phage type 104) has emerged to be the most common phage type of S. typhimurium. Of concern as it is resistant to many of the commonly used antibiotics including ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulphonamides, and tetracyclines (R-type ACSSuT). Some have also developed resistance to trimethoprim and to quinolone antibiotics (R-type ACSSUTTm and ACSSuTCP). The causative agent of mouse typhoid and of food poisoning in humans. Causes outbreaks of enteritis in most species, often related to rodent infestation. The cause of fowl paratyphoid.
an uncommon isolate in pigs.
Patient discussion about Salmonella
Q. What are the symptoms of salmonella infection?
A. Dehydration is the principal clinical concern. The incubation period – the time between ingestion of Salmonella bacteria and the onset of illness – varies from six to 72 hours.Salmonella can cause three different kinds of illness: gastroenteritis, typhoid fever, and bacteremia.Symptoms of Salmonella gastroenteritis include diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, nausea, and/or vomiting.In mild cases diarrhea may be non-bloody, occur several times per day, and not be very voluminous; in severe cases it may be frequent, bloody and/or mucoid, and of high volume. Fever generally occurs in the 100°F to 102°F (38°C to 39°C) range. Vomiting is less common than diarrhea. Headaches, myalgias (muscle pain), and arthralgias (joint pain) are often reported as well.Whereas the diarrhea typically lasts 24 to 72 hours, patients often report fatigue and other nonspecific symptoms lasting 7 days or longer. For the full article: http://www.about-salmonella.com/salmonella_symptoms_risks
Q. How can I catch Salmonella? Yesterday I ate a mousse which was made from raw eggs. Could I have caught Salmonella?
A. Salmonella infections usually resolve in 5-7 days and often do not require treatment unless the patient becomes severely dehydrated or the infection spreads from the intestines. Persons with severe diarrhea may require rehydration, often with intravenous fluids (IV). Antibiotics are not usually necessary unless the infection spreads from the intestines.
Q. What is salmonellosis? I heard on the news that there was a salmonella outbreak recently. What is it?
A. The Salmonella germ is actually a group of bacteria that can cause diarrheal illness in humans. They are microscopic living creatures that pass from the feces of people or animals, to other people or other animals. There are many different kinds of Salmonella bacteria. More discussions about Salmonella