Salmonella

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Salmonella

 [sal″mo-nel´ah]
a genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, usually motile, rod-shaped bacteria; this genus is very complex and has been described by several different systems of nomenclature. Clinical laboratories frequently report salmonellae as one of three species, differentiated on the basis of serologic and biochemical reactions: S. ty´phi, S. cho´lerae-su´is, and S. enteri´tidis; the last contains all serotypes except the first two. In this system (the Ewing scheme) many strains familiarly named as species are designated as serotypes of S. enteritidis (for example, S. paraty´phi becomes S. enteri´tidis serotype paraty´phi A). Salmonellae may also be grouped into five subgenera (I–V) on the basis of biochemical reactions and further into species on the basis of antigenic reactions: subgenus I contains most of the species.



Salmonella species are widely distributed in other animals, frequently producing disease that can be transmitted to humans. In humans pathogenic species cause enteric fevers (typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever), septicemia, and gastroenteritis. The most frequent manifestation is food poisoning. Pathogenic species include S. arizo´nae (salmonellosis), S. cho´lerae-su´is (a strain pathogenic for pigs that may infect humans), S. enteri´tidis (gastroenteritis; also see discussion of Ewing scheme above), S. paraty´phi (or S. enteri´tidis serotype paraty´phi A) (paratyphoid fever), S. ty´phi (typhoid fever), and S. typhimu´rium (or S. enteri´tidis serotype typhimu´rium (food poisoning and paratyphoid fever).

salmonella

 [sal″mo-nel´ah]
any organism of the genus Salmonella. adj., adj salmonel´lal.

Salmonella

(sal'mō-nel'ă), Avoid the mispronunciation săm'ō-nel'la.
A genus of aerobic to facultatively anaerobic bacteria (family Enterobacteriaceae) containing gram-negative rods that are either motile or nonmotile; motile cells are peritrichous. These organisms do not liquefy gelatin or produce indole and vary in their production of hydrogen sulfide; they use citrate as a sole source of carbon; their metabolism is fermentative, producing acid and usually gas from glucose, but they do not attack lactose; most are aerogenic, but Salmonella typhi never produces gas; they are pathogenic for humans and other animals. The type species is Salmonella choleraesuis.
[Daniel E. Salmon, U.S. pathologist, 1850-1914]

salmonella

(săl′mə-nĕl′ə)
n. pl. salmo·nellae (-nĕl′ē) or salmo·nellas or salmonella
1. Any of various rod-shaped bacteria of the genus Salmonella, especially S. enterica, which cause food poisoning, typhoid, and paratyphoid fever in humans and various infectious diseases in domestic animals. Salmonella bacteria are divided into numerous serotypes on the basis of certain antigens found in the cell wall and flagella.
2. Salmonellosis.

Sal·mo·nel·la

(sal'mō-nel'ă)
A genus of aerobic to facultatively anaerobic bacteria containing gram-negative rods that are either motile or nonmotile. They are pathogenic for humans and other animals. The type species is S. enterica choleraesuis.

Salmonella

A genus of bacteria containing over 2000 strains, no longer considered to be separate species. Some have species-specific infectivity. About half of the strains are known to cause FOOD POISONING in humans. Salmonella organisms also cause TYPHOID and PARATYPHOID fevers. Common contaminants of food include Salmonella typhimurium , S. hadar , S. enteritidis and S. virchow . (Daniel E. Salmon, American pathologist, 1850–1914)

Salmonella

a genus of bacteria containing a wide range of species that are pathogenic for man and other animals. They normally inhabit the intestinal tract. Examples include Salmonella typhi which causes typhoid fever and Salmonella typhimurium which causes severe gastroenteritis (salmonellosis).

Sal·mo·nel·la

(sal'mō-nel'ă)
Genus of aerobic to facultatively anaerobic bacteria pathogenic for humans and other animals. The type species is S. choleraesuis.

Patient discussion about Salmonella

Q. What are the symptoms of salmonella infection?

A. Dehydration is the principal clinical concern. The incubation period – the time between ingestion of Salmonella bacteria and the onset of illness – varies from six to 72 hours.Salmonella can cause three different kinds of illness: gastroenteritis, typhoid fever, and bacteremia.Symptoms of Salmonella gastroenteritis include diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, nausea, and/or vomiting.In mild cases diarrhea may be non-bloody, occur several times per day, and not be very voluminous; in severe cases it may be frequent, bloody and/or mucoid, and of high volume. Fever generally occurs in the 100°F to 102°F (38°C to 39°C) range. Vomiting is less common than diarrhea. Headaches, myalgias (muscle pain), and arthralgias (joint pain) are often reported as well.Whereas the diarrhea typically lasts 24 to 72 hours, patients often report fatigue and other nonspecific symptoms lasting 7 days or longer. For the full article: http://www.about-salmonella.com/salmonella_symptoms_risks

Q. How can I catch Salmonella? Yesterday I ate a mousse which was made from raw eggs. Could I have caught Salmonella?

A. Salmonella infections usually resolve in 5-7 days and often do not require treatment unless the patient becomes severely dehydrated or the infection spreads from the intestines. Persons with severe diarrhea may require rehydration, often with intravenous fluids (IV). Antibiotics are not usually necessary unless the infection spreads from the intestines.

Q. What is salmonellosis? I heard on the news that there was a salmonella outbreak recently. What is it?

A. The Salmonella germ is actually a group of bacteria that can cause diarrheal illness in humans. They are microscopic living creatures that pass from the feces of people or animals, to other people or other animals. There are many different kinds of Salmonella bacteria.

More discussions about Salmonella
References in periodicals archive ?
The model also included 5 interaction terms: region by year, to control for regional secular trends; region by policy for each policy (before and after letter grade was implemented), to account for the mean level change in NYC after the new policy took effect; and region by trend before and after policy implementation, to determine if the average Salmonella infections in NYC changed after policy implementation versus NYS (14).
Perez-Zafrilla et al., "Non-typhi Salmonella infection in patients with rheumatic diseases on TNF-alpha antagonist therapy," Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology, vol.
Salmonella infection of the thigh has previously been reported but in association with a pseudoaneurysm of the femoral artery [4].
Reptile-associated salmonella infection in humans is more likely to present with systemic disease than food-borne infections.
Like other microorganisms, increasing drug resistance is a challenge in treating Salmonella infection. Ciprofloxacin is no more the 'drug of choice' due to the development of resistance secondary to its injudicious use in developing countries; particularly in the Indian subcontinent.7,8Decreased susceptibility is also reported from the developed countries.9 Multidrug resistance (MDR) is also on the rise, particularly in Asian countries including the sub-continent.10
The team identified Tin Protoporphyrin (SnPP) as a candidate for the prevention of salmonella infection. SnPP inhibits the activity of the heme oxygenase enzyme, reversing the susceptibility to salmonellosis in malaria infections.
The state is cautioning parents to protect their children from possible salmonella infection caused by handling baby poultry such as chicks and ducklings.
Salmonellosis from turtles, lizards, and other reptiles represents 6% of all salmonella infections in the United States and 11% of infections in people less than 21 years of age (Clin.
Age Concern says the number of salmonella infections in the West Midlands rose by 14 per cent last year and say cases of the potentially serious bug almost doubles during the summer as warmer temperatures help it spread.
Most Salmonella infections stem from the consumption of eggs, chicken, and eggcontaining foods.
Salmonella infections overall were down 8%, although only one of the five most common strains decreased significantly.
"Salmonella infections cause a range of symptoms, including watery and sometimes bloody diarrhoea, abdominal pain, headache, nausea, vomiting and fever.