Salmonella


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Financial, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.
Related to Salmonella: shigella, Salmonella typhi, food poisoning, Salmonella food poisoning, E coli

Salmonella

 [sal″mo-nel´ah]
a genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, usually motile, rod-shaped bacteria; this genus is very complex and has been described by several different systems of nomenclature. Clinical laboratories frequently report salmonellae as one of three species, differentiated on the basis of serologic and biochemical reactions: S. ty´phi, S. cho´lerae-su´is, and S. enteri´tidis; the last contains all serotypes except the first two. In this system (the Ewing scheme) many strains familiarly named as species are designated as serotypes of S. enteritidis (for example, S. paraty´phi becomes S. enteri´tidis serotype paraty´phi A). Salmonellae may also be grouped into five subgenera (I–V) on the basis of biochemical reactions and further into species on the basis of antigenic reactions: subgenus I contains most of the species.



Salmonella species are widely distributed in other animals, frequently producing disease that can be transmitted to humans. In humans pathogenic species cause enteric fevers (typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever), septicemia, and gastroenteritis. The most frequent manifestation is food poisoning. Pathogenic species include S. arizo´nae (salmonellosis), S. cho´lerae-su´is (a strain pathogenic for pigs that may infect humans), S. enteri´tidis (gastroenteritis; also see discussion of Ewing scheme above), S. paraty´phi (or S. enteri´tidis serotype paraty´phi A) (paratyphoid fever), S. ty´phi (typhoid fever), and S. typhimu´rium (or S. enteri´tidis serotype typhimu´rium (food poisoning and paratyphoid fever).

salmonella

 [sal″mo-nel´ah]
any organism of the genus Salmonella. adj., adj salmonel´lal.

Salmonella

(sal'mō-nel'ă), Avoid the mispronunciation săm'ō-nel'la.
A genus of aerobic to facultatively anaerobic bacteria (family Enterobacteriaceae) containing gram-negative rods that are either motile or nonmotile; motile cells are peritrichous. These organisms do not liquefy gelatin or produce indole and vary in their production of hydrogen sulfide; they use citrate as a sole source of carbon; their metabolism is fermentative, producing acid and usually gas from glucose, but they do not attack lactose; most are aerogenic, but Salmonella typhi never produces gas; they are pathogenic for humans and other animals. The type species is Salmonella choleraesuis.
[Daniel E. Salmon, U.S. pathologist, 1850-1914]

Salmonella

/Sal·mo·nel·la/ (sal″mo-nel´ah) a genus of gram-negative bacteria. The genus Salmonella is very complex and has been described by several different systems of nomenclature. Clinical laboratories frequently report salmonellae as one of three species, differentiated on the basis of serologic and biochemical reactions: S. ty´phi, S. choleraesu´is, and S. enteri´tidis; the last contains all serotypes except the first two. In this system many strains familiarly named as species are designated as serotypes of S. enteritidis. Salmonellae may also be grouped into five subgenera (I–V) on the basis of biochemical reactions and further into species on the basis of antigenic reactions; subgenus I contains most of the species. Pathogenic species include S. arizo´nae (salmonellosis), S. choleraesuis (a strain pathogenic for pigs that may infect humans), S. enteritidis (gastroenteritis), S. enteritidis serotype paraty´phi A (paratyphoid fever), S. typhi (typhoid fever), and S. enteritidis serotype typhimu´rium (food poisoning and paratyphoid fever).

salmonella

/sal·mo·nel·la/ (sal″mo-nel´ah) pl. salmonel´lae   any organism of the genus Salmonella. salmonel´lal

salmonella

(săl′mə-nĕl′ə)
n. pl. salmo·nellae (-nĕl′ē) or salmo·nellas or salmonella
1. Any of various rod-shaped bacteria of the genus Salmonella, especially S. enterica, which cause food poisoning, typhoid, and paratyphoid fever in humans and various infectious diseases in domestic animals. Salmonella bacteria are divided into numerous serotypes on the basis of certain antigens found in the cell wall and flagella.
2. Salmonellosis.

Salmonella

[sal′mənel′ə]
Etymology: Daniel E. Salmon, American pathologist, 1850-1914
a genus of motile gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria that includes species causing typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, and some forms of gastroenteritis. Salmonella species are widely distributed in animals, frequently producing disease that can be transmitted to humans. The most frequent manifestation of salmonella is food poisoning. See also salmonellosis.

Sal·mo·nel·la

(sal'mō-nel'ă)
A genus of aerobic to facultatively anaerobic bacteria containing gram-negative rods that are either motile or nonmotile. They are pathogenic for humans and other animals. The type species is S. enterica choleraesuis.

Salmonella

A genus of bacteria containing over 2000 strains, no longer considered to be separate species. Some have species-specific infectivity. About half of the strains are known to cause FOOD POISONING in humans. Salmonella organisms also cause TYPHOID and PARATYPHOID fevers. Common contaminants of food include Salmonella typhimurium , S. hadar , S. enteritidis and S. virchow . (Daniel E. Salmon, American pathologist, 1850–1914)

Salmonella

a genus of bacteria containing a wide range of species that are pathogenic for man and other animals. They normally inhabit the intestinal tract. Examples include Salmonella typhi which causes typhoid fever and Salmonella typhimurium which causes severe gastroenteritis (salmonellosis).

Sal·mo·nel·la

(sal'mō-nel'ă)
Genus of aerobic to facultatively anaerobic bacteria pathogenic for humans and other animals. The type species is S. choleraesuis.

Salmonella

a genus of gram-negative, non-lactose fermenting, medium-sized, rod-shaped, bacteria, members of the family Enterobacteriaceae, most species having flagella and pili. The genus contains one species which has been divided into seven subgroups and a very large number of serotypes. Most species pathogenic for warm-blooded animals are in subgroup I (S. enterica). Subgroups IIIa (S. salamae) and IIIb (S. arizonae) include some species occasionally pathogenic for animals and birds. The salmonella include the typhoid-paratyphoid bacilli and bacteria usually pathogenic for lower animals but which are often transmitted to humans. They cause salmonellosis which has a number of manifestations and some are specific causes of abortion.

Salmonella abortusequi
causes abortion in horses.
Salmonella abortusovis, Salmonella montevideo
cause abortion in sheep.
Salmonella arizonae
the name now applied to subgroup IIIa, these organisms cause severe enteritis and septicemia in chicks and turkey poults.
Salmonella bovismorbificans
causes enteritis in cattle and horses.
Salmonella choleraesuis biotype Kunzendorf
causes septicemic and enteric salmonellosis of swine. Called the hog cholera bacillus because of the similarity of the clinical diseases.
Salmonella dublin
causes septicemia, meningitis, enteritis and abortion in cattle and abortion in sheep.
Salmonella enteriditis
a common cause of gastroenteritis in humans. Recorded also in most domestic animal species and fowl.
Salmonella gallinarum
causes fowl typhoid.
Salmonella heidelberg
an occasional isolate in horses.
Salmonella pullorum
Salmonella typhimurium
DT 104 R-types ACSSuT infects all animal species and humans, but particularly cattle and in many countries DT104 (determinant type/phage type 104) has emerged to be the most common phage type of S. typhimurium. Of concern as it is resistant to many of the commonly used antibiotics including ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulphonamides, and tetracyclines (R-type ACSSuT). Some have also developed resistance to trimethoprim and to quinolone antibiotics (R-type ACSSUTTm and ACSSuTCP). The causative agent of mouse typhoid and of food poisoning in humans. Causes outbreaks of enteritis in most species, often related to rodent infestation. The cause of fowl paratyphoid.
Salmonella typhisuis
an uncommon isolate in pigs.

Patient discussion about Salmonella

Q. What are the symptoms of salmonella infection?

A. Dehydration is the principal clinical concern. The incubation period – the time between ingestion of Salmonella bacteria and the onset of illness – varies from six to 72 hours.Salmonella can cause three different kinds of illness: gastroenteritis, typhoid fever, and bacteremia.Symptoms of Salmonella gastroenteritis include diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, nausea, and/or vomiting.In mild cases diarrhea may be non-bloody, occur several times per day, and not be very voluminous; in severe cases it may be frequent, bloody and/or mucoid, and of high volume. Fever generally occurs in the 100°F to 102°F (38°C to 39°C) range. Vomiting is less common than diarrhea. Headaches, myalgias (muscle pain), and arthralgias (joint pain) are often reported as well.Whereas the diarrhea typically lasts 24 to 72 hours, patients often report fatigue and other nonspecific symptoms lasting 7 days or longer. For the full article: http://www.about-salmonella.com/salmonella_symptoms_risks

Q. How can I catch Salmonella? Yesterday I ate a mousse which was made from raw eggs. Could I have caught Salmonella?

A. Salmonella infections usually resolve in 5-7 days and often do not require treatment unless the patient becomes severely dehydrated or the infection spreads from the intestines. Persons with severe diarrhea may require rehydration, often with intravenous fluids (IV). Antibiotics are not usually necessary unless the infection spreads from the intestines.

Q. What is salmonellosis? I heard on the news that there was a salmonella outbreak recently. What is it?

A. The Salmonella germ is actually a group of bacteria that can cause diarrheal illness in humans. They are microscopic living creatures that pass from the feces of people or animals, to other people or other animals. There are many different kinds of Salmonella bacteria.

More discussions about Salmonella
References in periodicals archive ?
People who have had salmonella should take particular care with personal hygiene because they may continue to pass salmonella bacteria in their faeces for as long as six months after having the infection.
When a person needs to be hospitalized from a Salmonella infection, the bacteria may spread from the person's intestines into the blood stream.
A total of 112 Salmonella Enteritidis strains isolated in French Polynesia were sent to the Centre National de Reference des Escherichia coli, Shigella, et Salmonella for further analysis.
Their studies indicate that Salmonella reach cows' PLN via two routes: oral ingestion and insect bites.
CSPI argues that ABR salmonella is found in animals because humans routinely administer antibiotics in feed and water to prevent and treat diseases, thus meeting the definition of an added substance.
SALMONELEX eliminates Salmonella, rather than merely inhibiting its growth.
In Algeria, laboratory members involved in bacterial resistance surveillance network reported a total of 197 non-typhoid Salmonella with a predominance of Salmonella Enteritidis (45 isolates) and 28 typhoid Salmonella were isolated in human medicine [1].
While it has been speculated that reuterin acts by regulating immune responses or competing with Salmonella for key binding sites, the current study represents the first in vitro examination of host-pathogen interactions using human intestinal epithelium in the presence of reuterin-producing L.
Microscopy revealed that at higher concentrations the Salmonella cells weren't evenly distributed, but clumped, and that the multiple layers formed from this could be providing a physical barrier of protection against CAP.
In 2012 the EU-community aims to reduce Salmonella prevalence below 1% in the layer and broiler flocks.
Department of Agriculture and Department of Health and Human Services targeting salmonella contamination by developing tougher standards to protect the safety of eggs, poultry and turkey.
serovar typhimurium human isolates in Slovakia, and multiple-drug resistance salmonella as a challenge for epidemiological investigations.