Vasculo-BD most frequently affects the venous system, usually manifesting as deep venous thrombosis (DVT) of the legs, with venous thrombosis of the superior vena cava (SVC), inferior vena cava, or hepatic veins also reported, leading to SVC syndrome
or Budd-Chiari syndrome (1).
Lead infection and retained leads increase the risk of thrombosis, stenosis and subsequent SVC syndrome. Lead material, calibre, and access site either by subclavian or cephalic did not have any impact on stenosis formation.4,5 Stenosis due number of leads varies, but only one study report that increasing number of leads had been associated with more stenosis formation.6
Because of high association of SVC syndrome with malignancy, a thorough history and physical examination should be performed in all cases.
The diagnosis of SVC syndrome
is made clinically with an accurate clinical history and physical examination, focusing on the duration and the speed of symptoms onset and the history of previous invasive procedures or malignant diseases.
Among pulmonary NHLs, DLBCLs are the most common subtypes that are associated with SVC syndrome. As per literature, very few cases, only about 7% of DLBCLs have SVC syndrome at initial presentation .
Although diffuse large B cell lymphoma subtype of primary pulmonary lymphoma is very rare, it should be included in the differential diagnosis of a lung mass with SVC syndrome. Because of its sporadic presentation and aggressive nature, the early recognition and prompt treatment are the key for outcome of the patient.
In a gradually developing SVC syndrome
, bronchogenic carcinoma is the commonest cause.
We present a case of antiphospholipid syndrome causing BCS with IVC and SVC thrombosis with progressive shortness of breath and hypoxemia due to SVC syndrome
Anthony Leachon, is 'SVC Syndrome
secondary to Hodgkins Lymphoma, antecedent cause t/c Medipory infection; s/p Mediport Insertion.'
reduces venous return to the heart and, like PE, may cause sinus tachycardia.
He was diagnosed with SVC syndrome
secondary to a mediastinal mass, demonstrated best by computed tomography (CT) [Figures 1, 2, 3].
The SVC syndrome
resolved with concurrent chemoradiotherapy before surgical intervention.