This paper focuses on the SoxD subgroup, which is composed of three genes Sox5, Sox6, and Sox13 in most vertebrates and invertebrates.
Sox13 is expressed in cells of the developing CNS and cartilage progenitors (Lefebvre, 2010; Wang et al., 2005), and is detected in the developing artery, inner ear, hair follicle and a subset of T cells, either (Lefebvre, 2010; Wang et al., 2005; Roose et al., 1998; Melichar et al., 2007).
CDNA sequence analysis of Sox5, Sox6 and Sox13 from carp
These were shown to be homologous to other Sox5, Sox6 and Sox13 genes using a BLAST search.
CcSox13 showed total amino acid identities of 100% and 72.06% with zebrafish Sox13 and Channel Catfish Sox13 (Table III).
The Sox proteins were grouped into two distinct clades, Sox5 and Sox6, and a distinct Sox13 subgroup.
Sox13 showed an initial increase in expression at the blastula followed by a decline in expression during the in the rest of the embryonic development process.
Sox13 was expressed at a high level in the brain, and its expression in the eye, gill and kidney in male fish and the eye and spleen in female fish were also high when compared with the other tissues whose expression levels were especially low.
Some of the autoantigens described by different authors include enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) , insulin (IAA) , insulinoma associated antigens (identified as tyrosine phosphatases IA-2 and IA2[beta]) [15, 16], islet cell antigens (ICA69) , enzyme carboxypeptidase-H , GM-gangliosides , 38kD autoantigen , sex determining region-Y box protein (SOX13) , and zinc transporter 8 protein (ZnT8A) also known as the solute carrier family 30 member 8 (SLC30A8) .
Argentaro et al., "Sex-determining region Y-related protein SOX13 is a diabetes autoantigen expressed in pancreatic islets," Diabetes, vol.