SMAD2

SMAD2

A gene on chromosome 18q21.1 that encodes a SMAD family protein, named for their similarity to the Drosophila gene Mothers Against Decapentaplegic (MAD), which are signal transducers and transcription modulators of multiple signalling pathways. SMAD2 mediates the signal of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, and thus regulates multiple cellular processes—e.g., cell proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation. In response to the binding of TGF-beta, SMAD2 is phosphorylated and dissociated from the SMAD anchor for receptor activation (SARA) protein and forms a complex with SMAD4, resulting in transcription regulation.
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With disease progression, the Smad7 levels were reduced with a concomitant increase in nuclear translocation of phosphorylated Smad2, an indicator of active TGF-[beta]/Smad2 signaling.
Panopoulou et al., "ERBIN is a new SARA-interacting protein: Competition between SARA and SMAD2 and SMAD3 for binding to ERBIN," Journal of Cell Science, vol.
T[beta]RI initiates phosphorylation of the adaptor proteins SMAD2 and SMAD3 which is followed by the formation of complex with SMAD4 [5].
Chen, "Effects of Shenqi Jiedu Decoction on expressions of transforming growth factor-[beta]1, smad2 and smad3 in renal tissues of rats with chronic renal failure induced by adenine," Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine, vol.
Phosphorylated Smad2 and Smad3 form a stable complex with Smad4 and then transfer into the nucleus, subsequently modulating the transcription of EMT-associated genes [10].
Mezey, "Transforming growth factor-fi1 up-regulation of human a!(I) collagen is mediated by Sp1 and Smad2 transacting factors," DNA and Cell Biology, vol.
Immunoblots were probed with primary antibody against STAT3 (Cell Signaling Technology), pSTAT3 (Cell Signaling Technology), aSMA (Epitomics), E-cadherin (Bio-world), IL-22 (Millipore), Smad2 (Cell Signaling Technology), pSmad2 (Cell Signaling Technology), or GADPH (Epitomics) at 4[degrees]C overnight followed by goat anti-rabbit secondary antibodies (Jackson ImmunoResearch, 1: 10,000 dilution) for 30 min at room temperature.
Lloyd, "Overexpression of Smad2 drives house dust mite-mediated airway remodeling and airway hyperresponsiveness via activin and IL-25," American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol.
There are other genes Linked to body size that possibly could be associated with canine heart development: high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2), insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA binding protein 2 (IGF2BP2), Obscurin Like 1 (OBSL1), Stanniocalcin-2 (STC2), Suppressor Of Cytokine Signalling 2 (SOCS2) and Mothers Against Decantaplegic homolog (SMAD2) (TGFb) (37), but this still is not clear.
The enriched TFs (Benjamini-Hochberg adjusted P value <0.2) of DEGs between Late and Early were SMAD2, SMAD3, SPI1, STAT1, GATA2, and FLI1 [Figure 1]b.
Pathobiological mechanisms of peritoneal adhesions: The mesenchymal transition of rat peritoneal mesothelial cells induced by TGF-[beta]1 and IL-6 requires activation of Erk1/2 and Smad2 linker region phosphorylation.