Based on the findings shown in Table 4, spermine supplementation markedly improved the gene expressions of SLC1A1 and SLC7A7 (Group SP-6 d relative to Group Con-6 d; Group SP-9 d relative to Group Con-9 d), SLC1A5 (Group SP-3 d vs Group Con-3 d; Group SP-6 d vs Group Con-6 d; Group SP-9 d vs Group Con-9 d), SLC7A1 (Group SP-6 d relative to Group Con-6 d), SLC7A9 (Group SP-7 h vs Group Con-7 h; Group SP-3 d vs Group Con-3 d; Group SP-6 d vs Group Con-6 d; Group SP-9 d vs Group Con-9 d), and SLC15A1 (Group SP-9 d relative to Group Con-9 d) (p<0.05) and did not influence SLC6A19 mRNA level in the spleen of piglets (p>0.05).
SLC1A5 and SLC6A19 are two high-affinity amino acid transporters that play important roles in electroneutral exchange of amino acids accompanied by co-transport of sodium .
The two pathways most strongly associated with alcohol dependence when using 10kb flanking regions were the 'Na+/Cl- dependent neurotransmitter transporters' pathway (#15) (SLC6A1, SLC6A2, SLC6A3, SLC6A5, SLC6A6, SLC6A7, SLC6A9, SLC6A11, SLC6A12, SLC6A13, SLC6A14, SLC6A15, SLC6A18, SLC6A19, SLC6A20, SLC18A1, SLC18A2, and SLC22A2) and the 'amino acid transport across the plasma membrane' pathway (#18) (SLC1A4, SLC1A5
, SLC3A1, SLC3A2, SLC6A6, SLC6A12, SLC6A14, SLC6A15, SLC6A18, SLC6A19, SLC6A20, SLC7A1, SLC7A2, SLC7A3, SLC7A5, SLC7A6, SLC7A7, SLC7A8, SLC7A9, SLC7A10, SLC7A11, SLC16A10, SLC36A1, SLC36A2, SLC38A1, SLC38A2, SLC38A3, SLC38A4, SLC38A5, SLC43A1, and SLC43A2) (both p = 1.8E-3).
Old versus young (fold- Step-up p Gene difference) (a) value (b) Cys and CySS transporters Slc7all# Down 5.0-fold# 0.0034# Slc7a9 0.28 Slc1a1 0.85 Slc1a4 Down 1.5-fold 0.034# Slc1a5
0.092 Slc3a1 0.38 Slc3a2 0.69 Thiol-disulfide enzymes: Glutathione-related Gpx1 Up 1.4-fold 0.033# Gpx2 0.096 Gpx3 0.49 Gpx4 0.064 Gpx5 0.87 Gpx6 0.71 Gpx7 0.067 Gpx8 0.23 Gsr 0.54 Gclc 0.62 Gclm 0.60 Gss 0.48 Glrx Down 1.7-fold 0.0097# Glrx2 0.11 Glrx3 Up 1.4-fold 0.044# Glrx5 Up 1.2-fold 0.048# (a) Fold-difference in expression in old fibroblasts relative to the expression in young fibroblasts is shown for all genes with a significant difference.