One gene, SLC1A1
, for example, helps modulate activity of the brain neurotransmitter glutamate, and has been linked to a metabolic disorder associated with intellectual disability and obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Expressions of amino acid transport-related genes, such as SLC1A1, SLC1A5, SLC7A1, SLC7A7, and SLC15A1, were significantly increased by spermine supplementation (Group SP-3 d vs Group Con-3 d; Group SP-6 d vs Group Con-6 d; Group SP-9 d vs Group Con-9 d; p<0.05).
Based on the findings shown in Table 4, spermine supplementation markedly improved the gene expressions of SLC1A1 and SLC7A7 (Group SP-6 d relative to Group Con-6 d; Group SP-9 d relative to Group Con-9 d), SLC1A5 (Group SP-3 d vs Group Con-3 d; Group SP-6 d vs Group Con-6 d; Group SP-9 d vs Group Con-9 d), SLC7A1 (Group SP-6 d relative to Group Con-6 d), SLC7A9 (Group SP-7 h vs Group Con-7 h; Group SP-3 d vs Group Con-3 d; Group SP-6 d vs Group Con-6 d; Group SP-9 d vs Group Con-9 d), and SLC15A1 (Group SP-9 d relative to Group Con-9 d) (p<0.05) and did not influence SLC6A19 mRNA level in the spleen of piglets (p>0.05).
SLC1A1, as a representative glutamate transporter, can provide the substance and energy required for cellular metabolism through adjusting the cellular absorption of glutamate .
Focusing on the cell signaling pathway, we particularly notice that EREG , SLC1A1
, STC2 , GAD1 , and TRH  are genes not selected by the JGGM but nonetheless previously were monitored in signaling pathways.
miRNA ID NOG p value TFP p value miR-145-5p 1 1.66E--02 0.67 2.98E--08 miR-204-5p 5 1.78E--15 0.13 1.05E--02 miR-182-5p 2 1.80E--08 0.20 4.34E--04 miR-567 1 1.66E--02 0.25 4.61E--04 miR-141-3p 2 1.80E--08 0.14 2.05E--03 miR-454-3p 2 1.80E--08 0.11 4.64E--02 miR-590-3p 5 1.78E--15 0.13 2.33E--03 miR-338-3p 2 1.80E--08 0.25 4.61E--04 miR-139-5p 1 1.66E--02 1.00 1.49E--08 miRNA ID Whole target genes miR-145-5p MMP12; ZFP36; KLF4 miR-204-5p DPYSL2; EMP1; SPDEF; LMO7; SLC1A1
; ALPL; MMP9; FRAS1 miR-182-5p CAMK2N1; ZFP36; UBE2T; LPHN2; RGS17.
In addition, a novel miRNA (miR-101b) was found to be downregulated in depression and could decrease mRNA and protein levels of glutamate transporter SLC1A1 in the prefrontal cortex .
Villaescusa et al., "MicroRNA 101b is downregulated in the prefrontal cortex of a genetic model of depression and targets the glutamate transporter SLC1A1 (EAAT3) in vitro," International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.
Old versus young (fold- Step-up p Gene difference) (a) value (b) Cys and CySS transporters Slc7all# Down 5.0-fold# 0.0034# Slc7a9 0.28 Slc1a1
0.85 Slc1a4 Down 1.5-fold 0.034# Slc1a5 0.092 Slc3a1 0.38 Slc3a2 0.69 Thiol-disulfide enzymes: Glutathione-related Gpx1 Up 1.4-fold 0.033# Gpx2 0.096 Gpx3 0.49 Gpx4 0.064 Gpx5 0.87 Gpx6 0.71 Gpx7 0.067 Gpx8 0.23 Gsr 0.54 Gclc 0.62 Gclm 0.60 Gss 0.48 Glrx Down 1.7-fold 0.0097# Glrx2 0.11 Glrx3 Up 1.4-fold 0.044# Glrx5 Up 1.2-fold 0.048# (a) Fold-difference in expression in old fibroblasts relative to the expression in young fibroblasts is shown for all genes with a significant difference.
Acidic AA transporters solute carrier family 1, member 1 (SLC1a1) and member 2 (SLC1a2) transport glutamate and aspartate.
Expression of acidic AA transporter SLC1a1 was upregulated in the jejunum and ileum (Quadratic, P < 0.001), while jejunal SLC1a2 transcript was linearly decreased (P < 0.001) with the increasing doses of L-theanine but increased by L-theanine treatments in the ileum (Quadratic, P < 0.05).
Although direct evidences about the regulatory mechanism of AA transporters transcription by L-theanine are lacking, previous literatures showed that activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) could transcriptionally upregulate SLC7a1  and regulatory factor X proteins (RFXs) induced mRNA of SLC1a1 .