van Grevenynghe, "Host restriction factor SAMHD1
limits human T cell leukemia virus type 1 infection of monocytes via STING-mediated apoptosis," Cell Host & Microbe, vol.
AGS is caused by the mutation on any of the 3 domains of H2 ribonuclease (RNase H2) : in TREX1 , in the sterile alpha motif domain, and in HD-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) , or adenosine deaminases acting on RNA (ADAR1) .
Asipu et al., "Mutations involved in Aicardi-Goutieres syndrome implicate SAMHD1 as regulator of the innate immune response," Nature Genetics, vol.
Scientists realized HIV was only capable of multiplying in macrophages when an antiviral protein called SAMHD1 was temporarily turned off.
"We knew that SAMHD1 is switched off when cells multiply, but macrophages do not multiply so it seemed unlikely that SAMHD1 would be switched off in these cells," Gupta wrote.
In H3N2 infection, some DNBs are involved in defense response (e.g., SIGLEC1, TNFAIP6, IRF7, SAMHD1
, TLR7, DHX58, and CXCL10) and inflammatory response (e.g., SIGLEC1, TNFAiP6, IRF7, TLR7, and CXCL10).
Liu et al., "Interferon-induced SAMHD1
expression in astrocytes and microglia is mediated by miR-181a," AIDS, vol.
The research focused on a protein called SAMHD1
. Recent studies have found that immune cells, called dendritic cells, containing the protein are resistant to infection by HIV.
HIV uses its accessory proteins such as the Vif that counteracts the apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme 3G (APOBEC3G), Vpr for SLX4 endonuclease complex, Vpu for bone marrow stromal antigen 2 (BST-2) or tetherin, and Vpx for SAM-domain HD-domain containing protein 1 (SAMHD1
Scientists in the United States and France recently discovered that a protein named SAMHD1
was able to prevent HIV replicating in a group of white blood cells called myeloid cells.
The factor, a protein called SAMHD1
, is part of the nucleic acid sensing machinery within the body's own immune system.