Mouse C2C12 cells, which constitutively express S1PR1, S1PR2
, and S1PR3 , were used as positive controls (data not shown).
One of the most important breakthroughs in this field was the discovery of the role of sphingosine-1 phosphate (S1P) which acts via its receptors S1PR1 and S1PR2
present on monocytes, as a vital regulator of monocyte bone homing in mice.
Recently, the G-protein-coupled receptor for Nogo-A-[DELTA]20, sphingolipid 1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1PR2
), was discovered.
Bile acids play their roles through specific receptors, including nuclear receptors [farnesoid X receptor (FXR), vitamin D receptor (VDR), and pregnane X receptor (PXR)] as well as membrane receptors [G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor 5 (TGR5), sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1PR2
), and muscarinic receptor 2] [11-18], and may activate multiple signaling pathways [protein kinase B (AKT), extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK1/2), and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)] [19-22].
FTY720-phosphate functions as a noncompetitive inhibitor of various S1PRs [30,31], such as S1PR1, S1PR3, S1PR4, and S1PR5, but not S1PR2
, receptors [27, 32, 33].
Phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2A (PPAP2A), E2F6, and S1Pr2
genes were related to the enriched pathway.
Scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in the US found higher levels of protein S1PR2
in tests on the brains of femalemice and dead women with MS than in male equivalents, BBC Newsreports Four times more women than men are currently diagnosed with MS.
Louis, females susceptible to MS produce higher levels of a blood vessel receptor protein, S1PR2
, than males and that the protein is present at even higher levels in the brain areas that MS typically damages.
Researchers found MS - which affects balance and vision and leaves sufferers exhausted - is linked to the gene S1PR2
Bernard et al., "Skin mast cells protect mice against vaccinia virus by triggering mast cell receptor S1PR2
and releasing antimicrobial peptides," The Journal of Immunology, vol.
In immature neurons, the activation of S1PR1 activates neurite outgrowth whereas S1PR2
or S1PR5 exerts inhibitory effects in vitro .
Intestine Ensembl Gene ID Gene Symbol Gene Description ENSSSCG00000002523 CDC42BP B CDC42 binding protein kinase beta (DMPK-like) [Source :HGNC Symbol;Acc:1738] ENSSSCG00000019556 7SK.46 7SK RNA [Source:RFAM;Acc:RF00100] ENSSSCG00000012939 BRMS1 breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 [Source:HGNC Symbol;Acc:17262] ENSSSCG00000013658 S1PR2
sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 [Source:HGNC Symbol;Acc:3169] ENSSSCG00000026161 E2F6 E2F transcription factor 6 [Source:HGNC Symbol;Acc:3120] ENSSSCG00000001025 DSP desmoplakin [Source:HGNC Symbol;Acc:3052] ENSSSCG00000014802 NUMA1 nuclear mitotic apparatus protein 1 [Source:HGNC Symbol;Acc:8059] ENSSSCG00000016912 PPAP2A phosphatidic acid phosphatase type 2A [Source:HGNC Symbol;Acc:9228] ENSSSCG00000030936 CH242-154K8.2 b.