Reinhold et al., "Sphingosine-1-phosphate stimulates the functional capacity of progenitor cells by activation of the CXCR4-dependent signaling pathway via the S1P3
receptor," Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol.
The pathophysiology underlying fingolimod-associated macular oedema is conjectured to be a consequence of perturbation of the blood-retinal barrier since S1P1 and S1P3
receptors have a pivotal role in regulating the function of the endothelial and epithelial barriers.49 Patients with pre-existing diabetes were excluded from the fingolimod trials in patients with MS owing to the data received from patients receiving the drug who had undergone a renal transplant as alluded to earlier.
HDL induces NO-dependent vasorelaxation via the lysophospholipid receptor S1P3. J Clin Invest 2004;113:569-81.
High-density lipoproteins and their constituent, sphingosine-1-phosphate, directly protect the heart against ischemia/reperfusion injury in vivo via the S1P3 lysophospholipid receptor.
More specifically, S1P1 receptor activation via S1P provides a protective signaling cascade, whereas S1P3
activation can potentially initiate detrimental effects.
S1P acts through five specific receptors (S1P1, S1P2, S1P3
, S1P4, and S1P5) [55-57].
Tolle et al., "HDL induces NO-dependent vasorelaxation via the lysophospholipid receptor S1P3
," The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol.
Depending on the DC maturation status in mouse, the different expression profile of S1PRs can be found including S1P1 and S1P3
. Mature DCs express higher levels of S1P3
mRNA compared with immature DCs .
Orange et al., "High expression of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors, S1P1 and S1P3
, sphingosine kinase 1, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 is associated with development of tamoxifen resistance in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patients," The American Journal of Pathology, vol.
Liu et al., "The sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors S1P1, S1P2, and S1P3
function coordinately during embryonic angiogenesis," The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.
Anderson et al., "Circulating monocytes are reduced by sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulators independently of S1P3
," Journal of Immunology, vol.
Jo et al., "Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor subtypes S1P1 and S1P3
, respectively, regulate lymphocyte recirculation and heart rate," The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.