Expression of S100 proteins in normal human tissues and common cancers using tissue microarrays: S100A6
, S100A8, S100A9 and S100A11 are all overexpressed in common cancers.
Different forms of cancer exhibit dramatic changes in the expression of S100 proteins such as S100B, S100A2, S100A4, S100A6
, and S100P. For example, elevated levels of S100A4 (metastasin) are associated with poor survival rates in human breast cancer patients and have been found to induce metastasis in mouse models.
The authors performed immunohistochemical staining of cryosections from neuroblastoma tissues using antibodies specific for markers of S- and N-type cells, S100A6
(calcyclin) and neurofilaments, respectively.
The calcium binding protein S100A6
is also on our predicted list, and it is located in the cytoplasm and nucleus of a wide range of cells.
S100 proteins are part of the inflammatory response and a number of these proinflammatory cytokines (S100B, S100A6
, S100A7, S100A1, S100A9, and S100A12) have been implicated in neurodegenerative disorders, such as AD.
CacyBP protein could be interacted with S100 protein family including S100A1, S100A6
, S100A12, S100B, and S100P.
Procollagen 1 (PC1), CD10, and S100A6
are typically reactive in AFX, but those markers often stain a variety of other neoplasms.
As can be expected, these genes can be assigned to different functional groups such as cell death regulators (CASP2, ING2, MDM4, NAIP), transcriptional and translational regulation (DEPDC1, GABPB1, LHFPL2, NFIB, P0LR3C, RPL34, RPS3A, RPS21, RPS25, TFDP2, TRIM24, ZBTB1, ZBTB38, ZFP112), oxidative stress response (SPATS2L, GSTT2B, NQO1), DNA maintenance and processing (BAHCC1, FANCA, H1ST1H3G, IK, KDM4C, MCM7, PRB3, RNASEH2B, SNRPE, TFDP2), blood coagulation (FGA, MATR3, PROCR, P1K3CG), signal transduction (ANXA2, ARHGAP19, C7orf47, CCDC50, DTX3, FHL2, P1K3CG, RALB, T1CAM2), cytoskeletal components (BCL7A, DYNC1LI2, SEPT10, SEPT11), transport functions (ABCC1, FXYD2, S100A6
, SCNN1G, XP05), or others (ADAM22, ALDH3A2, FAM161A, HDDC2, HLA-F).
Shuk-Man et al., "Calcium-binding proteins annexin A2 and S100A6
are sensors of tubular injury and recovery in acute renal failure," Kidney International, vol.
Rehman, "Expression of S100 proteins in normal human tissues and common cancers using tissue microarrays: S100A6
, S100A8, S100A9 and S100A11 are all overexpressed in common cancers," Histopathology, vol.
(calcyclin) is a novel marker of neural stem cells and astrocyte precursors in the subgranular zone of the adult mouse hippocampus," Hippocampus, vol.
Aberrantly differentiated cells in benign pilomatrixoma reflect the normal hair follicle: immunohistochemical analysis of Ca-binding S100A2, S100A3 and S100A6