Streptococcus pneumoniae

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Streptococcus

 [strep″to-kok´us]
a genus of gram-positive, facultatively aerobic cocci (family Streptococcaceae) occurring in pairs or chains. It is separable into the pyogenic group, the viridans group, the enterococcus group, and the lactic group. The first group includes the beta-hemolytic human and animal pathogens; the second and third include alpha-hemolytic parasitic forms occurring as normal flora in the upper respiratory tract and the intestinal tract, respectively; and the fourth is made up of saprophytic forms.
Streptococcus mu´tans a species implicated in dental caries.
Streptococcus pneumo´niae a small, slightly elongated, encapsulated coccus, one end of which is pointed or lance-shaped; the organisms commonly occur in pairs. This is the most common cause of lobar pneumonia, and it also causes serious forms of meningitis, septicemia, empyema, and peritonitis. There are some 80 serotypes distinguished by the polysaccharide hapten of the capsular substance. Called also pneumococcus.
Streptococcus pyo´genes a beta-hemolytic, toxigenic, pyogenic species that causes septic sore throat, scarlet fever, rheumatic fever, puerperal fever, acute glomerulonephritis, and other conditions in humans.

Strep·to·coc·cus pneu·mo·ni·ae

a species of gram-positive, lancet-shaped cocci and diplococci frequently occurring in chains; cells are readily lysed by bile salts. Virulent forms are enclosed in type-specific polysaccharide capsules, the basis for an effective vaccine. Normal inhabitants of the respiratory tract, and the most common cause of lobar pneumonia, they are the most common causative agents of meningitis, and pneumonia worldwide, and also cause otitis media, sinusitis, and other infections. It is the type species of the former genus Diplococcus.

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Microbiology A pathogenic streptococcus with 90 serotypes associated with pneumonia, bacteremia, meningitis Transmission Person to person Incidence Before 2000, S pneumoniae infections caused 100K-135K hospitalizations for pneumonia, 6 million cases of otitis media, and 60K cases of invasive disease–including 3300 cases of meningitis; sterile-site infections have a geographic variation of 21-33/105 Risk groups Elderly, children < age 2, African Americans, Native Americans, day care center inmates, and persons with underlying medical conditions including HIV infection and sickle-cell disease Prophylaxis 88% of clinical isolates of S pneumoniae are serotypes in the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine. See Meningitis.

Strep·to·coc·cus pneu·mo·ni·ae

(strep'tō-kok'ŭs nū-mō'nē-ē)
A bacterial species of gram-positive, lancet-shaped diplococci frequently occurring in pairs or chains. Virulent forms are enclosed in type-specific polysaccharide capsules. Normal inhabitants of the respiratory tract, and the cause of lobar pneumonia, otitis media, meningitis, sinusitis, and other infections.
Synonym(s): pneumococcus.

Strep·to·coc·cus pneu·mo·ni·ae

(strep'tō-kok'ŭs nū-mō'nē-ē)
A bacterial species of gram-positive, lancet-shaped diplococci frequently occurring in pairs or chains. Normal inhabitants of the respiratory tract, and the cause of lobar pneumonia, otitis media, meningitis, sinusitis, and other infections.
Synonym(s): pneumococcus.

Patient discussion about Streptococcus pneumoniae

Q. What Is Streptococcal Pneumonia? I have heard that I might have streptococcal pneumonia. What exactly does that mean?

A. Streptococcal pneumonia is a disease caused by the streptoccus bacteria. It is one of the most common causes of pneumonia in healthy people. You can learn more about bacterial pneumonia here-
http://www.5min.com/Video/Pneumonia---Viral-or-Bacterial--9552

More discussions about Streptococcus pneumoniae
References in periodicals archive ?
In Portugal, the emergence of macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae strains from 1994 to 2002 correlated with the use of azithromycin during the same period (23).
Moreover, clinically achievable serum, epithelial lining fluid, and middle-ear fluid concentrations of azithromycin were insufficient to eradicate macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae, irrespective of the resistance mechanism (26).
The clinical status of both patients deteriorated while they were receiving azithromycin, and macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae were isolated from blood and pleural fluid cultures taken while these patients were receiving medication.
(32) identified 86 patients with isolates of S. pneumoniae that were fully or intermediately resistant to macrolides and 141 controls who had macrolide-susceptible pneumococcal infection.
The clinical relevance of macrolide-resistant S. pneumoniae has been addressed in updates to these groups' guidelines for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (34,35) and in a report published by the Drug-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Therapeutic Working Group convened by CDC (36).
Levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, and moxifloxacin all have susceptibility rates >99% for S. pneumoniae (22,23).
However, emergence of resistance to S. pneumoniae has occurred (43) and now may limit the use of SMX-TMP in respiratory tract infections.
An example of such subtle topoisomerase mutation is seen with fluoroquinolones such as levofloxacin, which have been recommended and widely used for the therapy of pneumococcal pneumonia when penicillin resistance to S. pneumoniae is a problem (61).
Quinupristin/ dalfopristin is bactericidal against staphylococci and streptococci such as S. pneumoniae, generally bacteriostatic against Enterococcus faecium, and inactive against E.
The resulting C11,C12 carbamate extension facilitates a distinctly different and more effective interaction with domain II of the 23S rRNA than occurs with erythromycin-A or clarithromycin (73) and is responsible for increased activity against erythromycin-A-resistant gram-positive cocci, such as S. pneumoniae, which develop resistance due to increased efflux (74,75).