Reproductive hormone deficiency leads to vulvar and vaginal thinning, loss of rugal folds
, diminished elasticity, diminished vaginal glycogen, and decreased acidity (increased pH) of the vaginal secretions, thereby reducing the vagina's natural defenses.
Gastric emptying time was defined as the absence of contrast material within the proventriculus and ventriculus on both fluoroscopic views or the presence of sufficient barium to highlight the rugal folds
Insufflation of air was continued till the rugal folds
begin to separate and foreign body was identified (Fig.1).
Often a reduction or absence of rugal folds
and small mucosal elevations due to the presence of islands of intestinal metaplasia are seen.
Grossly, the mucosal surface of the antrum showed tan rugal folds
with multiple areas of submucosal hemorrhage ranging in size from 0.3 to 0.7 cm in diameter.
With estrogen deficiency, as the epithelium of the vagina and vulva thins and loses its rugal folds
, elasticity diminishes, and susceptible to injury, even with minor trauma, ensues (FIGURE 1).