Furthermore, herbivore dispersal is also suspected as a factor contributing to the increase of ruderal species
recorded at ancient woodland edges (Willi et al.
The Ru'us al-Jibal features a number of higher elevation ruderal species
that are not found in the Hajar Mountains to the south.
Shapiro explained: "Butterfly folks generally consider these ruderal species
to be 'junk species,' sort of the way bird watchers think of pigeons and starlings.
Abundance of this life form is because annuals tend to have long-lived seeds (>1 year) that form persistent seed banks (Thompson and Grime, 1979), a characteristic common to early successional and ruderal species
Most of them are considered as ruderal species
that colonize disturbed areas or lands because the human influence has modified their natural distribution.
In terms of adaptive strategy, in forest succession, silver birch is likely to be a typical primary colonist and ruderal species
and also grows well in calcareous areas.
A distinction must be made between the type of weed, that is, ruderal species
capable of colonizing canopy gaps, vs.
For example, in our agroecosystem, where ant species tend to be smaller, local myrmecochorous plants (for example, Viola spp.) also tend to have small seeds, so that dispersal is likely to be successful for these more ruderal species
. In fact, the foraging activity of ants tends to be high in the more exposed habitats (also see Bestelmeyer 1997), so dispersal frequency (if not distance) may be higher in more disturbed habitats.
Native ruderal species
adapted to severe disturbance were given values of 0 to 3.
Helens, colonizing species are commonly stress-tolerant perennials rather than ruderal species
(Wood and del Moral 1987, del Moral and Wood 1993a, b).
Representatives of Moinidae are considered ruderal species
(Romanovsky, 1985), showing high biotic potential but with a need for high food concentrations, being preferably found in productive or disturbed environments.