The use of robotic devices—e.g., Intuitive Surgical’s DaVinci system—which have miniaturised cameras and precision lasers to conduct minimally invasive surgical procedures—e.g., prostatectomy, cystectomy, and many other procedures. One surgeon sits at a console near the opened patient and has 3-D images of the site and manipulates laparoscopic tools with hand and foot controls; the second surgeon controls suction, exposure of the operative field, retraction and changes the robot’s tools
Pros Precision due to three-dimensional magnification, and device articulation beyond that of conventional surgery, miniaturization, smaller incisions, decreased blood loss, less pain, quicker healing time
Cons Expense; each DaVinci costs nearly $2 million
robotic surgery A technology to use robotic devices, based on the engineering principles of those used in automobile manufacture, which promises to improve the precision and ease of surgery. Robotic arms have for some time been used to replace surgical assistants holding retractors, and more advanced devices are now in use. Telemanipulations systems exist by which the surgeon's hand movements are accurately reproduced within the patient's body. Internal mammary artery, coronary artery bypass surgery has been performed successfully on the beating heart using such a device with an internal 3-D camera and ventilation of the right lung only.