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- Pregnant women. Aspirin can cause bleeding problems in both the mother and the developing fetus. Aspirin can also cause the infant's weight to be too low at birth.
- Women who are breastfeeding. Aspirin can pass into breast milk and may affect the baby.
- People with a history of bleeding problems.
- People who are taking blood-thinning drugs, such as warfarin (Coumadin).
- People with a history of ulcers.
- People with a history of asthma, nasal polyps, or both. These people are more likely to be allergic to aspirin.
- People who are allergic to fenoprofen, ibuprofen, indomethacin, ketoprofen, meclofenamate sodium, naproxen, sulindac, tolmetin, or the orange foodcoloring tartrazine. They may also be allergic to aspirin.
- People with AIDS or AIDS-related complex who are taking AZT (zidovudine). Aspirin can increase the risk of bleeding in these patients.
- People taking certain other drugs (discussed in Interactions).
- People with liver damage or severe kidney failure.
- ringing or buzzing in the ears
- hearing loss
- stomach pain that does not go away
acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin)
Pharmacologic class: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)
Therapeutic class: Nonopioid analgesic, antipyretic, antiplatelet drug
Pregnancy risk category C (with full dose in third trimester: D)
Reduces pain and inflammation by inhibiting prostaglandin production. Fever reduction mechanism unknown; may be linked to decrease in endogenous pyrogens in hypothalamus resulting from prostaglandin inhibition. Exerts antiplatelet effect by inhibiting synthesis of prostacyclin and thromboxane A2.
Gum (chewable): 227 mg
Suppositories: 60 mg, 120 mg, 200 mg, 300 mg, 325 mg, 600 mg, 650 mg
Tablets: 81 mg, 325 mg, 500 mg
Tablets (chewable): 81 mg
Tablets (enteric-coated, delayed-release): 81 mg, 162 mg, 325 mg, 500 mg, 650 mg, 975 mg
Tablets (extended-release): 650 mg, 800 mg
Tablets (film-coated): 325 mg, 500 mg
Indications and dosages
➣ Mild pain or fever
Adults: 325 to 500 mg P.O. q 3 hours, or 325 to 650 mg P.O. q 4 hours, or 650 to 1,000 mg P.O. q 6 hours, to a maximum dosage of 4,000 mg/day.
Extended-release tablets-650 mg to 1,300 mg q 8 hours, not to exceed 3,900 mg/day; or 800 mg q 12 hours.
Children: 10 to 15 mg/kg P.O. or P.R. q 4 hours, not to exceed total daily dosage of 3.6 g, or up to 60 to 80 mg/kg/day. See chart below.
➣ Mild to moderate pain caused by inflammation (as in rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis)
Adults: Initially, 2,400 to 3,600 mg P.O. daily in divided doses. Dosage may be increased by 325 to 1,200 mg daily at intervals of at least 1 week. Usual maintenance dosage is 3.6 to 5.4 g/day P.O. in divided doses, to a maximum dosage of 6 g/day.
➣ Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
Children: 60 to 130 mg/kg/day P.O. in children weighing 25 kg (55 lb) or less, or 2,400 to 3,600 mg P.O. daily in children weighing more than 25 kg P.O.; give in divided doses q 6 to 8 hours.
➣ Acute rheumatic fever
Adults: 5 to 8 g/day P.O. in divided doses
Children: Initially, 100 mg/kg/day P.O. in individual doses for first 2 weeks; then maintenance dosage of 75 mg/kg/day P.O. in divided doses for next 4 to 6 weeks
➣ To reduce the risk of transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) or cerebrovascular accident in men with a history of TIAs caused by emboli
Adults: 650 mg P.O. b.i.d. or 325 mg P.O. q.i.d.
➣ To reduce the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with a history of MI or unstable angina
Adults: 75 to 325 mg/day P.O.
➣ Kawasaki disease
Children: Initially during acute febrile period, 80 to 180 mg/kg/day P.O. in four divided doses. Maintenance dosage is 3 to 10 mg/kg/day given as a single dose for up to 8 weeks or until platelet count and erythrocyte sedimentation rate return to normal.
➣ Thromboembolic disorders
Adults: 325 to 650 mg P.O. once or twice daily
• Hypersensitivity to salicylates, other NSAIDs, or tartrazine
• Renal impairment
• Severe hepatic impairment
• Hemorrhagic states or blood coagulation defects
• Vitamin K deficiency caused by dehydration
• Concurrent anticoagulant use
• Pregnancy (third trimester) or breastfeeding
Use with extreme caution, if at all, in:
• hepatic disorders, anemia, asthma, gastritis, Hodgkin's disease
• heart failure or other conditions in which high sodium content is harmful (buffered aspirin)
• patients receiving other salicylates or NSAIDs concurrently
• elderly patients
• children and adolescents.
☞ Never administer to child or adolescent who has signs or symptoms of chickenpox or flulike illness.
☞ Don't give within 6 weeks after administration of live varicella virus vaccine, because of risk of Reye's syndrome.
• Give with food or large amounts of water or milk to minimize GI irritation.
• Know that extended-release and enteric-coated forms are best for long-term therapy.
• Be aware that aspirin should be discontinued at least 1 week before surgery because it may inhibit platelet aggregation.
EENT: hearing loss, tinnitus, ototoxicity
GI: nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dyspepsia, epigastric distress, heartburn, anorexia, GI bleeding
Hematologic: thrombocytopenia, hemolytic anemia, leukopenia, agranulocytosis, shortened red blood cell life span
Metabolic: hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypoglycemia
Respiratory: wheezing, hyperpnea, pulmonary edema with toxicity
Skin: rash, urticaria, bruising, angioedema
Other: hypersensitivity reactions, salicylism or acute toxicity
Drug-drug. Acidifying drugs (such as ammonium chloride): increased salicylate blood level
Activated charcoal: decreased salicylate absorption
Alkalinizing drugs (such as antacids): decreased salicylate blood level Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors: decreased antihypertensive effect
Anticoagulants, NSAIDs, thrombolytics: increased bleeding risk
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (such as acetazolamide): salicylism
Corticosteroids: increased salicylate excretion and decreased blood level Furosemide: increased diuretic effect Live varicella virus vaccine: increased risk of Reye's syndrome
Methotrexate: decreased methotrexate excretion and increased blood level, causing greater risk of toxicity Nizatidine: increased salicylate blood level
Spironolactone: decreased spironolactone effect
Sulfonylureas (such as chlorpropamide, tolbutamide): enhanced sulfonylurea effects
Tetracycline (oral): decreased absorption of tetracycline (with buffered aspirin)
Drug-diagnostic tests. Alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, amylase, aspartate aminotransferase, coagulation studies, PaCO2, uric acid: increased values
Cholesterol, glucose, potassium, protein-bound iodine, sodium, thyroxine, tri-iodothyronine: decreased levels
Pregnancy test, protirelin-induced thyroid stimulating hormone, radionuclide thyroid imaging, serum theophylline (Schack and Waxler method), urine catecholamines, urine glucose, urine hydroxyindoleacetic acid, urine ketones (ferric chloride method), urine vanillylmandelic acid: test interference
Tests using phenosulfonphthalein as diagnostic agent: decreased urinary excretion of phenosulfonphthalein Urine protein: increased level
Drug-food. Urine-acidifying foods: increased salicylate blood level
Drug-herbs. Anise, arnica, cayenne, chamomile, clove, fenugreek, feverfew, garlic, ginger, ginkgo biloba, ginseng, horse chestnut, kelpware, licorice: increased bleeding risk
Drug-behaviors. Alcohol use: increased bleeding risk
☞ Watch for signs and symptoms of hypersensitivity and other adverse reactions, especially bleeding tendency.
• Stay alert for signs and symptoms of acute toxicity, such as diplopia, ECG abnormalities, generalized seizures, hallucinations, hyperthermia, oliguria, acute renal failure, incoherent speech, irritability, restlessness, tremor, vertigo, confusion, disorientation, mania, lethargy, laryngeal edema, anaphylaxis, and coma.
• Monitor elderly patients carefully because they're at greater risk for salicylate toxicity.
• With prolonged therapy, frequently assess hemoglobin, hematocrit, International Normalized Ratio, and kidney function test results.
• Check salicylate blood levels frequently.
• Evaluate patient for signs and symptoms of ototoxicity (hearing loss, tinnitus, ataxia, and vertigo).
• Tell patient to report ototoxicity symptoms, unusual bleeding, and bruising.
• Caution patient to avoid activities that may cause injury. Advise him to use soft toothbrush and electric razor to avoid gum and skin injury.
• Instruct patient to tell all prescribers he's taking the drug, because it may cause serious interactions with many common medications.
• Tell patient not to take other over-the-counter preparations containing aspirin.
• Inform patient that he may need to undergo regular blood testing during therapy.
• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs, tests, foods, herbs, and behaviors mentioned above.
aspirin/as·pi·rin/ (as´pĭ-rin) acetylsalicylic acid, a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug having analgesic, antipyretic, antiinflammatory, and antirheumatic activity; also an inhibitor of platelet aggregation.
aspirinAcetylsalicylate, acetylsalicylic acid Therapeutics A widely used analgesic, antipyretic, antiinflammatory, and antiplatelet agent; it is one of the safest drugs currently prescribed Adverse effects GI upset, occult bleeding; high doses inhibit cyclooxygenase and can produce tinnitus, tachycardia, dizziness, deep rapid breathing, hallucinations, convulsions, coma Used for Pain, fever, rheumatic complaints; acute rheumatic fever; TIAs, acute MI. See Controlled-release aspirin, NSAID, Superaspirin.
aspirinAcetylsalicylic acid. A drug used as a painkiller, to reduce fever, as an antiplatelet agent to reduce the tendency of blood to clot within the circulation, and as a means of reducing the likelihood of heart attack, stroke, diabetic retinopathy, migraine and colon cancer. Aspirin is an inhibitor of the cyclo-oxygenase (COX) class of enzymes which form PROSTAGLANDINs. This accounts for the wide range of its actions. Daily aspirin is recommended for people at risk of coronary events, and complications commonly have been shown often to arise in those on long-term aspirin who stop the therapy for any reason. Aspirin also has a growing reputation as an anticancer drug possibly by its action in promoting apoptosis (cell suicide) in cancer cells. There is some evidence that aspirin may reduce the risk of developing ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE. There is no doubt that it reduces the risk of demential caused by repetitive small episodes of brain damage by thrombosis. See also CYCLO-OXYGENASE and COX-2 INHIBITORS.
acetylsalicylic acidan analgesic that relieves pain without loss of consciousness.
aspirin; acetylsalicylic acid non- steroidal anti-inflammatory drug with analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antiplatelet actions; used to control mild to moderate pain, and as a mild anticoagulant for prophylaxis of coronary and cerebrovascular disease; side-effects include gastric irritation/ulceration, fluid retention, bleeding tendency, skin thinning and suppressed healing; contraindicated for children (<16 years old), and should be avoided in asthma, allergies, hepatic or renal impairment and pregnancy; causes a risk of additive drug reactions with other anticoagulants, antidepressants, analgesics and methotrexate. Adult dose: 300–900 mg daily (maximum of 4 g in 24 hours) as analgesic and anti-inflammatory: 75 mg daily for antiplatelet action (Table 1) see antiplatelet therapy non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
|Gastrointestinal||Nausea; dyspepsia; diarrhoea; peptic ulceration or perforation; bleeding|
|Renal||Fluid retention; peripheral oedema; renal failure; papillary necrosis; interstitial fibrosis|
|Respiratory||Bronchoconstriction; pulmonary eosinophilia; alveolitis|
|Coagulation||Reduced platelet aggregation; increased bleeding time; easy bruising|
|Skin||Severe allergic reactions (e.g. Stevens–Johnson syndrome); toxic epidermal necrolysis; angioedema; skin thinning; reduced healing|
|Visceral||Congestive heart failure; hepatitis; pancreatitis; aseptic meningitis|
Synonym(s): acetylsalicylic acid.
drug class: nonnarcotic analgesic salicylate;
action: inhibits prostaglandin synthesis, possesses analgesic, antiinflammatory, antipyretic properties;
uses: mild to moderate pain or fever. It was the first discovered member of the class of drugs known as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), not all of which are salicylates, although they all have similar effects and a similar action mechanism. Its primary undesirable side effects, especially in stronger doses, are gastrointestinal distress (including ulcers and stomach bleeding) and tinnitus. Another side effect, due to its anticoagulant properties, is increased bleeding.
Patient discussion about aspirin
Q. Is it safe to take aspirin during pregnancy? I have been having headaches and want to take an aspirin to relieve the pain however I am pregnant. Can I take aspirin whilst pregnant?
just one is safe and willl lessen headache pain.