Primary outcome measures were pain while walking and standing and at rest during the previous 24 hour, recorded on a 100 mm Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and pain or tenderness, produced under firm digital pressure and with movement of the affected knee, scored according to Doyle's Ritchie Index on a 4-point scale (0=no tenderness, 1=patient complained of pain, 2=patient complained of pain and winced, 3=pain, wincing leading to withdrawal) (12,13).
Ratio of patients who improved in Ritchie Index was compared by chi-square test.
In addition, baseline Ritchie index, VAS score at rest, walking and at standing position, and total WOMAC scores of the patients were not statistically different between the groups (Table 1).
The mean Ritchie index scores of the groups were not improved at the 1st month visit, but statistically significant improvement was found at the 3rd month visit in the group using 6 mm wedge insole compared to the baseline values (p=0.011) (Table 3 and 4).
Other significant correlates of cardiovascular disease risk were a high CRP level at entry, a high score on the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), and a high score on the Ritchie index
. In a logistic regression model that also controlled for age, sex, diabetes, and smoking status, the only entry measures that remained significant were disease duration and HAQ score, Dr.