Also found in: Dictionary.


Novo-Risperidone (CA), PHL-Risperidone (CA), PMS-Risperidone (CA), Ran-Risperidone (CA), Ratio-Risperidone (CA), Risperdal, Risperdal Consta, Risperdal M-Tab, Riva-Risperidone (CA), Sandoz Risperisone (CA)

Pharmacologic class: Benzisoxazole derivative

Therapeutic class: Antipsychotic

Pregnancy risk category C


Antagonizes serotonin2 and dopamine2 receptors in CNS. Also binds to alpha1-and alpha2-adrenergic receptors and histamine H1 receptors.


Oral solution: 1 mg/ml in 30-ml bottles

Powder for injection (extended-release microspheres): 12.5 mg, 25-mg, 37.5-mg, 50-mg vials in dose pack with diluent in prefilled syringes

Tablets: 0.25 mg, 0.5 mg, 1 mg, 2 mg, 3 mg, 4 mg

Tablets (orally disintegrating): 0.5 mg, 1 mg, 2 mg, 3 mg, 4 mg

Indications and dosages


Adults: Initially, 2 mg P.O. daily (as once daily or 1 mg b.i.d.). May increase dosage at 24-hour intervals or more in increments of 1 to 2 mg per day, as tolerated, to recommended dosage of 4 to 8 mg/day. In some patients, slower titration may be appropriate. Efficacy has been demonstrated with a range of 4 to 16 mg/day. However, dosages above 6 mg/day for b.i.d. dosing weren't demonstrated to be more efficacious than lower dosages, were associated with more extrapyramidal symptoms and other adverse effects, and generally aren't recommended. Or, 25 mg deep I.M. q 2 weeks; some patients may benefit from a higher dosage (37.5 or 50 mg). Maximum dosage is 50 mg I.M. q 2 weeks. Efficacy hasn't been evaluated for longer than 12 weeks.

Adolescents ages 13 to17: 0.5 mg P.O. as single daily dose in morning or evening. Dosage adjustments, if indicated, should occur at intervals of not less than 24 hours, in increments of 0.5 or 1 mg/day, as tolerated, to recommended dosage of 3 mg/day.

Short-term management of acute manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar 1 disorder as monotherapy or as adjunct to lithium or valproate

Adults: Initially, 2 to 3 mg/day P.O. May adjust in increments or decrements of 1 mg/day at 24-hour intervals. Range is 1 to 6 mg/day. Or, 25 mg I.M. q 2 weeks; some patients may benefit from higher dosage (37.5 or 50 mg). Make upward adjustments no more frequently than q 4 weeks. Maximum dosage is 50 mg I.M. q 2 weeks.

Short-term management of bipolar 1 disorder as monotherapy

Children and adolescents ages 10 to 17: 0.5 mg P.O. daily as a single daily dose in the morning or evening. May adjust in increments or decrements of 0.5 to 1 mg/day at 24-hour intervals as tolerated, to recommended target dose of 1 to 2.5 mg/day. Range is 1 to 6 mg/day.

Irritability due to autistic disorder

Children and adolescents ages 5 to 17: Initially, 0.25 mg P.O. (Risperdal) daily for patients weighing less than 20 kg (44 lb) and 0.5 mg/day for patients weighing 20 kg or more. After minimum of 4 days, increase as needed to recommended dosage of 0.5 mg/day for patients weighing less than 20 kg and 1 mg/day for patients weighing 20 kg or more. Maintain this dosage for minimum of 14 days. If sufficient clinical response not achieved, consider dosage increases at 2-week or more intervals in increments of 0.25 mg/day for patients weighing less than 20 kg or 0.5 mg/day for patients weighing 20 kg or more. Effective dosage range is 0.5 to 3 mg/day. Once sufficient clinical response has been achieved and maintained, consider gradually lowering dosage to achieve optimal balance of efficacy and safety.

Dosage adjustment

• Mild to moderate hepatic or renal impairment (appropriate oral dosage titration should occur before initiation of I.M. dosing)

• Severe hepatic or renal impairment (with oral use)

• Elderly or debilitated patients

• Concurrent use of enzyme inducers (such as carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, rifampin), fluoxetine, or paroxetine

Off-label uses

• Tourette syndrome


• Hypersensitivity to drug


Use cautiously in:

• renal or hepatic impairment, cardiovascular disease, prolonged QT interval, dysphagia, hyperprolactinemia, hypothermia or hyperthermia, Parkinson's disease, phenylketonuria, tardive dyskinesia, metabolic changes that may increase cardiovascular or cerebrovascular risk (such as hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, weight gain), previous diagnosis of breast cancer or prolactindependent tumors

• history of seizures, drug abuse, or suicide attempt

• elderly or debilitated patients

• pregnant patients

• breastfeeding patients (use not recommended)

• children (safety not established for Risperdal Consta, Risperdal M-Tab, and Risperdal in children weighing less than 33 lb [15 kg]), children younger than age 5 with autistic disorder, younger than age 10 with bipolar disorder, or younger than age 13 with schizophrenia (Risperdal).


• Record baseline blood pressure before starting therapy.

Do not give powder for injection I.V.

• Be aware that oral drug tolerability should be established before starting I.M. therapy in patients who have never taken oral risperidone.

• Be aware that oral risperidone (or another antipsychotic) should be given with the first I.M. injection and continued for 3 weeks (then discontinued) to ensure that adequate therapeutic plasma concentrations are maintained before the main release phase of long-acting risperidone injection.

• When reconstituting powder for injection, use only the diluent and needle supplied.

• Shake vial vigorously for a minimum of 10 seconds to ensure homogeneous suspension. When properly mixed, the suspension appears uniform, thick, and milky with visible particles.

• If 2 minutes elapse before giving injection, shake vial vigorously before administering. Give injection within 6 hours of reconstitution.

• Don't combine two different dose strengths of I.M. drug in a single administration.

• For I.M. use, inject deep into buttock; rotate injection sites between buttocks.

• Be aware that children and adolescents experiencing persistent somnolence may benefit from once-daily Risperdal dose administered at bedtime, from administering half daily dose twice daily, or from reduction of dose.

Adverse reactions

CNS: tremor, parkinsonism, aggressive behavior, dizziness, drowsiness, extrapyramidal reactions, headache, increased dreams, longer sleep periods, insomnia, sedation, fatigue, nervousness, agitation, anxiety, tardive dyskinesia, hyperkinesia, akathisia, transient ischemic attack (TIA), cerebrovascular accident (CVA), neuroleptic malignant syndrome, suicide

CV: orthostatic hypotension, chest pain, tachycardia, arrhythmias

EENT: vision disturbances, rhinitis, sinusitis, pharyngitis

GI: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, abdominal pain, dyspepsia, dry mouth, increased salivation, anorexia, dysphagia

GU: difficulty urinating, polyuria, galactorrhea, dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia, decreased libido

Hematologic: leukopenia, neutropenia, agranulocytosis

Metabolic: dyslipidemia, hyperprolactinemia, hyperglycemia, worsening of diabetes mellitus

Musculoskeletal: joint or back pain

Respiratory: cough, dyspnea, upper respiratory tract infection

Skin: pruritus, diaphoresis, rash, dry skin, seborrhea, increased pigmentation, photosensitivity

Other: toothache, fever, impaired temperature regulation, weight changes


Drug-drug. Antihistamines, opioids, sedative-hypnotics: additive CNS depression

Carbamazepine: increased metabolism and decreased efficacy of risperidone

Clozapine: decreased metabolism and increased effects of risperidone

Levodopa, other dopamine agonists: decreased antiparkinsonian effects of these drugs

Drug-diagnostic tests. Blood glucose, prolactin: increased levels

Granulocytes, leukocytes, neutrophils: decreased counts

Drug-behaviors. Alcohol use: increased CNS depression

Sun exposure: increased risk of photosensitivity

Patient monitoring

Closely monitor neurologic status, especially for mood changes or suicidal ideation, neuroleptic malignant syndrome (high fever, sweating, unstable blood pressure, stupor, muscle rigidity, and autonomic dysfunction), extrapyramidal reactions, TIA, CVA, and tardive dyskinesia.

Closely monitor CBC with differential, especially during first few months of therapy; discontinue drug if severe neutropenia occurs.

• Monitor blood pressure, particularly for orthostatic hypotension.

• Assess body temperature. Check for fever and other signs and symptoms of infection.

• Monitor patient with diabetes mellitus for worsening of glucose control. Patients with risk factors for diabetes mellitus who are starting treatment with risperidone should undergo fasting blood glucose testing at the beginning of and periodically during treatment. Monitor all patients receiving drug for signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia, including polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, and weakness. Also watch for other metabolic changes such as dyslipidemia or significant weight gain.

• Reassess patients periodically to determine need for maintenance treatment.

Patient teaching

• Instruct patient to remove orally disintegrating tablet from blister pack, place on tongue immediately, and swallow as tablet dissolves.

• Tell patient to mix oral solution with water, coffee, orange juice, or low-fat milk. Tell him solution isn't compatible with cola or tea.

• Advise patient to use effective bedtime routine to avoid sleep disorders.

Teach patient to recognize and immediately report signs and symptoms of serious adverse reactions, mood changes or suicidal ideation, including tardive dyskinesia, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome.

• Instruct patient to move slowly when sitting up or standing, to avoid dizziness from sudden blood pressure decrease.

• Tell patient that excessive fluid loss (as from sweating, vomiting, or diarrhea) and inadequate fluid intake increase risk of light-headedness (especially in hot weather).

• Caution patient to avoid driving and other hazardous activities until he knows how drug affects concentration and alertness.

• Advise female patient to tell prescriber if she is or plans to become pregnant. Caution her not to breastfeed during therapy.

• Advise patient not to drink alcohol.

• As appropriate, review all other significant and life-threatening adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs and behaviors mentioned above.

McGraw-Hill Nurse's Drug Handbook, 7th Ed. Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved


(riss-per-i-done) ,


(trade name),

Risperdal M-TAB

(trade name),

Risperdal Consta

(trade name)


Therapeutic: antipsychotics
Pharmacologic: benzisoxazoles
Pregnancy Category: C


Schizophrenia in adults and adolescents aged 13–17 yr.Short-term treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes associated with Bipolar I Disorder (oral only) in adults, and children and adolescents aged 10–17 yr, maintenance treatment of Bipolar I Disorder (IM only) in adults only; can be used with lithium or valproate (adults only).Irritability associated with autistic disorder in children.


May act by antagonizing dopamine and serotonin in the CNS.

Therapeutic effects

Decreased symptoms of psychoses, bipolar mania, or autism.


Absorption: 70% after administration of tablets, solution, or orally disintegrating tablets. Following IM administration, small initial release of drug, followed by 3-wk lag ; the rest of release starts at 3 wk and lasts 4–6 wk.
Distribution: Unknown.
Metabolism and Excretion: Extensively metabolized by the liver. genetic implication Metabolism is genetically determined; extensive metabolizers (most patients) convert risperidone to 9-hydroxyrisperidone rapidly. Poor metabolizers (6–8% of Whites) convert it more slowly. The 9-hydroxyrisperidone is an antipsychotic compound. Risperidone and its active metabolite are renally eliminated.
Half-life: Extensive metabolizers—3 hr for risperidone, 21 hr for 9-hydroxyrisperidone. Poor metabolizers—20 hr for risperidone and 30 hr for 9-hydroxyrisperidone.

Time/action profile (clinical effects)

PO1–2 wkunknownup to 6 wk†
IM3 wk4–6 wkup to 6 wk†
†After discontinuation


Contraindicated in: Hypersensitivity; Lactation: Discontinue drug or bottle feed.
Use Cautiously in: Debilitated patients, patients with renal or hepatic impairment (initial dose reduction recommended);Underlying cardiovascular disease (↑ risk of arrhythmias and hypotension);History of seizures;History of suicide attempt or drug abuse;Diabetes or risk factors for diabetes (may worsen glucose control);Patients at risk for aspiration; Obstetric / Pediatric: Safety not established; Geriatric: Initial dose ↓ recommended. ↑ risk of mortality in elderly patients treated for dementia-related psychosis.

Adverse Reactions/Side Effects

Central nervous system

  • neuroleptic malignant syndrome (life-threatening)
  • suicidal thoughts (life-threatening)
  • aggressive behavior (most frequent)
  • dizziness (most frequent)
  • extrapyramidal reactions (most frequent)
  • headache (most frequent)
  • ↑ dreams (most frequent)
  • ↑ sleep duration (most frequent)
  • insomnia (most frequent)
  • sedation (most frequent)
  • fatigue
  • impaired temperature regulation
  • nervousness
  • tardive dyskinesia

Ear, Eye, Nose, Throat

  • pharyngitis (most frequent)
  • rhinitis (most frequent)
  • visual disturbances (most frequent)


  • cough (most frequent)
  • dyspnea


  • arrhythmias
  • orthostatic hypotension
  • tachycardia


  • constipation (most frequent)
  • diarrhea (most frequent)
  • dry mouth (most frequent)
  • nausea (most frequent)
  • weight gain (most frequent)
  • abdominal pain
  • anorexia
  • dyspepsia
  • polydipsia
  • ↑ salivation
  • vomiting
  • weight loss


  • ↓ libido (most frequent)
  • dysmenorrhea/menorrhagia (most frequent)
  • difficulty urinating
  • polyuria
  • priapism


  • itching/skin rash (most frequent)
  • dry skin
  • ↑ pigmentation
  • sweating
  • photosensitivity
  • seborrhea


  • dyslipidemia
  • galactorrhea
  • hyperglycemia


  • agranulocytosis (life-threatening)
  • leukopenia
  • neutropenia


  • arthralgia
  • back pain


Drug-Drug interaction

May ↓ the antiparkinsonian effects of levodopa or other dopamine agonists.Carbamazepine, phenytoin, rifampin, phenobarbital, and other enzyme inducers ↑ metabolism and may ↓ effectiveness; dose adjustments may be necessary.Fluoxetine and paroxetine ↑ blood levels and may ↑ effects; dose adjustments may be necessary.Clozapine ↓ metabolism and may ↑ effects of risperidone.↑ CNS depression may occur with other CNS depressants, including alcohol, antihistamines, sedative/hypnotics, or opioid analgesics.Kava, valerian, or chamomile can ↑ CNS depression.



Oral (Adults) 1 mg twice daily, ↑ by 1–2 mg/day no more frequently than every 24 hr to 4–8 mg daily.
Oral (Children 13–17 yr) 0.5 mg once daily, ↑ by 0.5–1.0 mg no more frequently than every 24 hr to 3 mg daily. May administer half the daily dose twice daily if drowsiness persists.
Intramuscular (Adults) 25 mg every 2 wk; some patients may benefit from a higher dose of 37.5 or 50 mg every 2 wk.

Acute Manic or Mixed Episodes Associated with Bipolar I Disorder

Oral (Adults) 2–3 mg/day as a single daily dose, dose may be ↑ at 24-hr intervals by 1 mg (range 1–5 mg/day).
Oral (Children 13–17 yr) 0.5 mg once daily, ↑ by 0.5–1 mg no more frequently than every 24 hr to 2.5 mg daily. May administer half the daily dose twice daily if drowsiness persists.
Oral (Geriatric Patients or Debilitated Patients) Start with 0.5 mg twice daily; ↑ by 0.5 mg twice daily, up to 1.5 mg twice daily; then ↑ at weekly intervals if necessary. May also be given as a single daily dose after initial titration.

Maintenance Treatment of Bipolar I Disorder

Intramuscular (Adults) 25 mg every 2 wk; some patients may benefit from a higher dose of 37.5 or 50 mg every 2 wk.

Irritability Associated with Autistic Disorder

Oral (Children 5–16 yr weighing <20 kg) 0.25 mg/day initially. After at least 4 days of therapy, may ↑ to 0.5 mg/day. Dose ↑ in increments of 0.25 mg/day may be considered at 2-wk or longer intervals. May be as a single or divided dose.
Oral (Children 5–16 yr weighing >20 kg) 0.5 mg/day initially. After at least 4 days of therapy, may ↑ to 1 mg/day. Dose ↑ in increments of 0.5 mg/day may be considered at 2-wk or longer intervals. May be as a single or divided dose.

Renal Impairment

Hepatic Impairment

Oral (Adults) Start with 0.5 mg twice daily; ↑ by 0.5 mg twice daily, up to 1.5 mg twice daily; then ↑ at weekly intervals if necessary. May also be given as a single daily dose after initial titration.

Availability (generic available)

Tablets: 0.25 mg, 0.5 mg, 1 mg, 2 mg, 3 mg, 4 mg Cost: Generic — 0.25 mg $18.40 / 180, 0.5 mg $22.58 / 180, 1 mg $24.13 / 180, 2 mg $28.94 / 180, 3 mg $34.94 / 180, 4 mg $38.30 / 180
Orally disintegrating tablets (Risperdal M-Tabs): 0.25 mg, 0.5 mg, 1 mg, 2 mg, 3 mg, 4 mg Cost: Generic — 0.5 mg $131.86 / 28, 1 mg $154.07 / 28, 2 mg $250.49 / 28, 3 mg $316.12 / 28, 4 mg $424.45 / 28
Oral solution: 1 mg/mL Cost: Generic — $152.56 / 30 mL
Extended-release microspheres for injection (Risperdal Consta): 12.5 mg/vial kit, 25 mg/vial kit, 37.5 mg/vial kit, 50 mg/vial kit

Nursing implications

Nursing assessment

  • Monitor patient’s mental status (orientation, mood, behavior) and mood before and periodically during therapy. Monitor closely for notable changes in behavior that could indicate the emergence or worsening of suicidal thoughts or behavior or depression, especially during early therapy. Restrict amount of drug available to patient.
  • Assess weight and BMI initially and throughout therapy. Monitor for symptoms of hyperglycemia polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia,weakness) periodically during therapy.
  • Monitor BP (sitting, standing, lying down) and pulse before and frequently during initial dose titration. May cause prolonged QT interval, tachycardia, and orthostatic hypotension. If hypotension occurs, dose may need to be decreased.
  • Observe patient when administering medication to ensure medication is swallowed and not hoarded or cheeked.
  • Monitor patient for onset of extrapyramidal side effects (akathisia—restlessness; dystonia—muscle spasms and twisting motions; or pseudoparkinsonism—mask-like face, rigidity, tremors, drooling, shuffling gait, dysphagia). Report these symptoms; reduction of dose or discontinuation may be necessary. Trihexyphenidyl or benztropine may be used to control symptoms.
  • Monitor for tardive dyskinesia (involuntary rhythmic movement of mouth, face, and extremities). Report immediately; may be irreversible.
  • Monitor for development of neuroleptic malignant syndrome (fever, respiratory distress, tachycardia, seizures, diaphoresis, hypertension or hypotension, pallor, tiredness). Notify health care professional immediately if these symptoms occur.
  • Lab Test Considerations: May cause ↑ serum prolactin levels.
    • May cause ↑ AST and ALT.
    • May also cause anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukocytosis, and leukopenia.
    • Obtain fasting blood glucose and cholesterol levels initially and periodically during therapy.
    • Monitor CBC frequently during initial months of therapy in patients with pre-existing or history of low WBC. May cause leukopenia, neutropenia, or agranulocytosis. Discontinue therapy if this occurs.

Potential Nursing Diagnoses

Risk for self-directed violence (Indications)
Disturbed thought process (Indications)
Risk for injury (Side Effects)


  • Do not confuse risperidone with reserpine.
    • When switching from other antipsychotics, discontinue previous agents when starting risperidone and minimize the period of overlapping antipsychotic agents.
    • If therapy is reinstituted after an interval off risperidone, follow initial titration schedule.
    • For IM use, establish tolerance with oral dosing before IM use and continue oral dosing for 3 wk following initial IM injection. Do not increase dose more frequently than every 4 wk.
  • Oral: Daily doses can be taken in the morning or evening.
    • For orally disintegrating tablets, open blister pack by pealing back foil to expose tablet; do not try to push tablet through foil. Use dry hands to remove tablet from blister and immediately place entire tablet on tongue. Tablets disintegrate in mouth within seconds and can be swallowed with or without liquid. Do not attempt to split or chew tablet. Do not try to store tablets once removed from blister.
    • Oral solution can be mixed with water, coffee, orange juice, or low-fat milk; do not mix with cola or tea.
  • Intramuscular: Reconstitute with 2 mL of diluent provided by manufacturer. Administer via deep deltoid (1-inch needle) or gluteal (2-inch needle) injection using enclosed safety needle; alternate arms or buttocks with each injection. Allow solution to warm to room temperature prior to injection. Administer immediately after mixed with diluent; shake well to mix suspension. Must be administered within 6 hr of reconstitution. Store dose pack in refrigerator.
    • Do not combine dose strengths in a single injection.

Patient/Family Teaching

  • Instruct patient to take medication as directed.
  • Inform patient of the possibility of extrapyramidal symptoms. Instruct patient to report these symptoms immediately to health care professional.
  • Advise patient to change positions slowly to minimize orthostatic hypotension.
  • May cause drowsiness. Caution patient to avoid driving or other activities requiring alertness until response to medication is known.
  • Advise patient and family to notify health care professional if thoughts about suicide or dying, attempts to commit suicide; new or worse depression; new or worse anxiety; feeling very agitated or restless; panic attacks; trouble sleeping; new or worse irritability; acting aggressive; being angry or violent; acting on dangerous impulses; an extreme increase in activity and talking; other unusual changes in behavior or mood occur.
  • Advise patient to use sunscreen and protective clothing when exposed to the sun to prevent photosensitivity reactions. Extremes in temperature should also be avoided; this drug impairs body temperature regulation.
  • Instruct patient to notify health care professional of all Rx or OTC medications, vitamins, or herbal products being taken and consult health care professional before taking any new medications. Caution patient to avoid concurrent use of alcohol and other CNS depressants.
  • Advise female patients to notify health care professional if pregnancy is planned or suspected, or if breast feeding or planning to breast feed.
  • Advise patient to notify health care professional of medication regimen before treatment or surgery.
  • Instruct patient to notify health care professional promptly if sore throat, fever, unusual bleeding or bruising, rash, tremors, or symptoms of hyperglycemia occur.
  • Emphasize the importance of routine follow-up exams to monitor side effects and continued participation in psychotherapy to improve coping skills.

Evaluation/Desired Outcomes

  • Decrease in excited, manic behavior.
  • Decrease in positive symptoms (delusions, hallucinations) of schizophrenia.
  • Decreased aggression toward others, deliberate self-injury, temper tantrums, and mood changes in children with autism.
  • Decrease in negative symptoms (social withdrawal, flat, blunted affects) of schizophrenia.
  • Decrease in autism symptoms.
Drug Guide, © 2015 Farlex and Partners


A trademark for the drug risperidone.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
(5) Although LAI atypical antipsychotics have been available since the approval of Risperdal Consta, the LAI form of risperidone, and both LAI forms of aripiprazole, were not designed to be loaded.
See generally Drug Summary: Risperdal Physician's Desk Reference, http://www.pdr.net/drug-summary/risperdal?druglabelid=977&id=606 (last visited Apr.
Clinical trials of Risperdal had shown the drug increased the risk of strokes in the elderly and diabetes in all patients.
Johnson & Johnson agreed to resolve criminal and civil probes into the marketing of Risperdal, an antipsychotic drug, and other medicines by paying more than $2.2 billion, one of the largest U.S.
(SeeNews) - Nov 6, 2013 - The US unit ofA Belgian Janssen Pharmaceutica will pay a USD-334-million (EUR 247m) fine to avoid prosecution for improper sales practicesA regarding antipsychoticA drug Risperdal.
The allegations include paying kickbacks to physicians and pharmacies to recommend and prescribe Risperdal and Invega, both antipsychotic drugs, and Natrecor, which is used to treat heart failure.
Arkansas state judge Tim Fox has ordered Johnson & Johnson (J&J) to pay $181 million in fees to Houston-based Bailey Perrin Bailey for the work it did on a state Medicare fraud case involving the antipsychotic drug Risperdal. In that case, Fox fined J&J $1.1 billion for downplaying and hiding the risks associated with Risperdal, as well as marketing the drug for unapproved uses.
Johnson & Johnson (NYSE: JNJ) has agreed to settle a probe into sales of its antipsychotic drug Risperdal and other medications for as much as $2.2 billion, Bloomberg reported Monday, citing two people familiar with the matter.
An Arkansas judge on Wednesday fined Johnson & Johnson and a subsidiary more than $1.1 billion after a jury found that the companies downplayed and hid risks associated with taking the antipsychotic drug Risperdal.
Risperdal, a drug approved to treat psychotic behaviors, is sometimes prescribed for children with the behavioral issues.
In response to widespread concerns about the number of impoverished Texas kids being prescribed drugs like Seroquel and Risperdal - medications that can have serious side effects in children - prescribing doctors would have to get a prior authorization from the state, a steep hurdle designed to limit use of the drugs.
In 1999, nearly 18% of patients with dementia received antipsychotics including olanzapine (Zyprexa), risperidone (Risperdal), and quetiapine (Seroquel).