To construct a passively mode-locked ring fiber
laser, the experimental configuration as in Figure 3 is employed, including the standard fiber-optic components such as wavelength division multiplexer (WDM), polarization controller (PC), coupler, optical isolator, and active fiber (AF).
Meanwhile Telkom has invested Rp500 billion (US$ 53,3 million) for the first phase of the construction of the Mataram-Kupang Cable System (MKCS) section of the Palapa Ring fiber
cable project which totals 1,041 kilometers including the sectors of Mataram-Kupang, Manado-Sorong, and Fakfak-Makasar.
Terrestrial networks are a composite of subnetworks with different topologies (e.g., ring fiber
networks with star topology terminating points or metropolitan networks) and tens or hundreds of switching or routing points in between.