Materialism is argued alarmingly in terms of low subjective well-being, low life satisfaction and poor interpersonal relationships (Sheldon and Kasser, 2008; Shrum, Lee, Burroughs, and Rindfleisch
, 2011; Van Boven and Gilovich, 2003; Vega and Roberts, 2011).
According to transaction cost theory and relational view of the firm, direct investment of capital or tools to suppliers for process improvement, or initiating joint activities to have the supplier involved in the manufacturing or product development process, are means to accumulating relationship-specific assets that are sources of relational rents (Rindfleisch
and Heide, 1997; Dyer and Singh, 1998; Grover and Malhotra, 2003; Crook et al., 2012).
A significant body of research (e.g., Braun & Wicklund, 1989; Chang & Arkin, 2002; Dawson & Bamossy, 1991; Dittmar, 2004; Dittmar, Long, & Bond, 2007; Kasser & Ryan, 1993; Lunt & Livingstone, 1992; Mukerji, 1983; Rindfleisch
, 2005) corroborates the self-identity function that products often serve.
According to transaction-cost economics, a firm's relationship-specific investment may be subject to the risk of opportunistic behaviour and exploitation by exchange partners that have not made a reciprocal commitment and investment (Rindfleisch
and Heide 1997; Williamson 1979).
die Reduzierung des Konsums tierischer Produkte, speziell Rindfleisch
For example, researchers have reported that heavy television viewing cultivates acceptance or tolerance of authoritarianism (Shanahan, 1998) and materialism (Shrum, Burroughs, & Rindfleisch
2001; Herd, Borland, and Hyland 2009; Rindfleisch
and Crockett 1999; Weinberger, Mazure, and McKee 2010).
and Arsel (2006) suggest that consumers avoid brands when their emotional-branding promises are viewed as inauthentic.
The context of specialty coffee was chosen for study because it has several important features such for consumers' (anti-corporate) experiences of globalization (Thompson & Arsel, 2004), emotional branding, and doppelganger brand image (Thompson, Rindfleisch
, & Arsel, 2006), hegemonic brandscapes (Thompson & Arsel, 2004), boycotts, and outsourcing of politics (Simon, 2011), Coffee culture and consumption have been studied in Japan (Grinshpun, 2013), and coffee's role in global consumer culture in Scandinavia (Kjeldgaard & Ostberg, 2007).