Rift Valley fever


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Rift Valley fever

 
a zoonotic febrile disease with symptoms like those of dengue, due to an arbovirus transmitted by mosquitoes or by contact with diseased animals; first observed in the Rift Valley, Kenya.

Rift Val·ley fe·ver

a fatal endemic disease of sheep, caused by Rift Valley fever virus, a member of the family Bunyaviridae, which is also pathogenic for humans and cattle, producing in humans fever of an undifferentiated type; transmitted by mosquitoes and direct contact.
[Rift Valley in Kenya]

Rift Valley fever

n.
An acute infectious disease of humans and domestic animals, especially cattle and sheep, caused by a mosquito-borne virus and characterized in humans by fever and sometimes ocular disease, hemorrhagic symptoms, or encephalitis, and in animals by fever, abortion, and death of newborns. Rift Valley fever was first described in Kenya and occurs primarily in sub-Saharan Africa.

Rift Valley fever

a bunyavirus infection of Egypt and east Africa spread by mosquitoes or by handling infected sheep, buffalo, goats, camels, and cattle. Those individuals infected with RVF virus typically exhibit no symptoms or a mild illness that involves fever and abnormalities of the liver. It is characterized by abrupt fever, chills, headache, and generalized aching, followed by epigastric pain, anorexia, loss of taste, and photophobia. Retinitis may cause vision loss in 1% to 10% of cases. The disease is of short duration; recovery occurs typically after 2 days to a week and is usually complete. There is no specific treatment. A killed virus vaccine that provides protection for 2 years is available in the United States for those at risk, such as laboratory workers and veterinarians.

Rift valley fever

Infectious disease A dengue-like viral disease spread by mosquitoes in floods, causing fatal enzootic hepatitis in ruminants–sheep, cattle and occasional human epidemics, by direct contact Clinical Abrupt onset with a biphasic fever curve, headaches, prostration, myalgias, anorexia, N&V, conjunctivitis, lymphadenopathy; death may result from hemorrhagic fever or encephalitis Mortality 5-20%. See Dengue.

Rift Valley fever

A disease occurring mainly in South Africa and caused by an arbovirus normally infecting sheep and goats. It is transmitted by mosquito bite and causes a DENGUE-like illness sometimes complicated by JAUNDICE, haemorrhages, RETINOPATHY and MENINGOENCEPHALITIS. There is no specific treatment.

Rift Valley fever

an acute infectious febrile disease of humans, cattle and sheep caused by a Phlebovirus and spread by biting insects, especially mosquitoes. Clinically there is high fever, incoordination and sudden death. Abortion is a common accompaniment. The autopsy findings include extensive hepatic necrosis. Initially reported in the Rift Valley in Kenya but is now epizootic throughout sub-Saharan Africa and has recently extended to Egypt, Madagascar, Mauritania and the Arabian peninsula. It has great potential for spread to other countries and is of concern because it is an important zoonosis.
References in periodicals archive ?
MBT/Pas mouse: a relevant model for the evaluation of Rift Valley fever vaccines.
Favipiravir (T-705) protects against peracute Rift Valley fever virus infection and reduces delayed-onset neurological diseases observed with ribavirin treatment.
The mosquito-borne arboviruses that are potentially notifiable are yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, Rift Valley fever virus and Dengue virus.
The first prediction of a Rift Valley fever outbreak.
Climate and satellite indicators to forecast Rift Valley fever epidemics in Kenya.
The DHS predicts that the facility will focus on foot and mouth disease (FMD), classical swine fever, African swine fever, Rift Valley fever, Nipah virus, Hendra virus, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, and Japanese encephalitis.
That would not provide immediate help for Issa Hamad, a Sudanese trader who could not import his livestock in 2007 due to an outbreak of Rift Valley fever.
Epidemics of Rift Valley fever, a deadly mosquito-borne disease, rage through northeastern Africa during years of unusual warmth," said the study.
Although part of a worldwide agenda, the event in Nairobi will be seen as particularly timely following the deaths of more than 150 people in Kenya from the recent outbreak of Rift Valley Fever.
Of serum samples collected from the first 19 patients, Rift Valley fever (RVF) virus RNA or immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies against RVF virus were found in samples from 10 patients; all serum specimens were negative for yellow fever, Ebola, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, and dengue viruses.
Abattoir waste carries high levels of microorganisms that cause disease in humans and animals, such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli bacteria, Rift Valley fever virus, and parasites that cause toxoplasmosis and trichinellosis.
A new diagnostic screen for detection of Ebola Zaire, Ebola Sudan, Marburg, Lassa virus, Rift Valley fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Hantaan, Seoul, yellow fever, and Kyasanur Forest Disease viruses offers sensitivity and speed by simultaneously considering multiple agents, thereby reducing the time needed for differential diagnosis.