ribosome

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ribosome

 [ri´bo-sōm]
any of the intracellular ribonucleoprotein organelles concerned with protein synthesis, found either bound to cell membranes or free in the cytoplasm. They may occur singly or in clusters (polyribosomes). The genetic code is translated when ribosomes attach to messenger RNA.

ri·bo·some

(rī'bō-sōm),
A granule of ribonucleoprotein, 120-200 Ǻ in diameter, that is the site of protein synthesis from aminoacyl-tRNAs as directed by mRNAs.
Synonym(s): Palade granule

ribosome

(rī′bə-sōm′)
n.
A structure composed of RNA and protein, present in large numbers in the cytoplasm of living cells and serving as the site for assembly of polypeptides encoded by messenger RNA.

ri′bo·so′mal (-sō′məl) adj.

ri·bo·some

(rī'bŏ-sōm)
A granule of ribonucleoprotein, 120-150 Å in diameter, which is the site of protein synthesis from aminoacyl-tRNAs as directed by mRNAs.

ribosome

A spherical cell ORGANELLE made of RNA and protein which is the site of protein synthesis in the cell by linking amino acids into chains. Ribosomes may be free or may be attached to the endoplasmic reticulum. During translation, ribosomes attach to MESSENGER RNA molecules and travel along them, synthesizing polypeptides as they go.

ribosome

a small particle (not an ORGANELLE) found in the cytoplasm of all cells, composed of protein and RIBOSOMAL RNA. Each ribosome is composed of two subunits of different sizes which sediment at different rates during centrifugation (see ULTRACENTRIFUGE). PROKARYOTES have ribosome with 70 S size and mass; EUKARYOTES have larger ribosomes with 80 S size and mass. Ribosomes bind to the 5′ end of MESSENGER RNA (see POLYNUCLEOTIDE CHAIN) and travel towards the 3′ end, with TRANSLATION and POLYPEPTIDE synthesis occurring as they go along. Frequently several ribosomes are attached to one piece of mRNA, forming a POLYRIBOSOME.

Palade,

George Emil, Romanian-U.S. cell biologist and Nobel laureate, 1912–.
Palade granule - a granule of ribonucleoprotein, the site of protein synthesis from aminoacyl-tRNAs as directed by mRNAs. Synonym(s): ribosome
Weibel-Palade bodies - see under Weibel
References in periodicals archive ?
Sanne Boersma, researcher at the Hubrecht Institute explains: "As illustrated by the example sentence, out-of-frame translation has a big effect on the protein and usually results in a protein that behaves differently and can damage the cell." Until now, it was unclear how the ribosome knows where to start translating the code, and how often the ribosome gets it wrong.
As a result of this genetic mutation, a stop signal is generated in the mRNA that tells the ribosomes to finish their work before the titin has been completed, explains van Heesch.
The findings show that total ribosome levels work in combination with certain structural elements of messenger RNA to determine the direction of a stem cell's development and differentiation.
However, similar to viral IRESes, cellular IRESes participate in multiple interactions with the canonical initiation factors and ITAFs to recruit the ribosome [1, 20].
Transmission electron micrograph showing a portion of cytoplasmic hepatocyte of diazepam-treated mouse fetus, demonstrating disorganized rough endoplasmic reticulum surface (R) with ribosomes, polyribosomes (P) and mitochondria (M).
Known as the cells protein "factory," the ribosome "translates" what are called "amino acids"-think of phrases in a sentence-into proteins that play vital functions in the human body, from twitching the muscles and sending out signals to digesting food and providing structure for hair and bone.
* This oak wood extract provides support for ribosomes, the tiny cellular factories responsible for accurately producing structural and functional proteins everywhere in the body.
The cytoplasm appeared electron-dense and contained numerous ribosomes (Figs.
As an antimicrobial agent, tigecycline is known to inhibit bacterial protein synthesis by binding to their ribosomes. In human cells, mitochondria have their own ribosomes that are similar to those found in bacteria.
For example, type 2 ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) trigger the catalytic inactivation of ribosomes. The most known members of this family are ricin and the mistletoe lectins.