Anti-IgM induces up-regulation and tyrosine-phosphorylation of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein
K proteins (hnRNP K) in a Ramos B cell line.
Smith, "Nuclear functions of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins
A/B," Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, vol.
Kim, "Highly efficient RNA-guided genome editing in human cells via delivery of purified Cas9 ribonucleoproteins
," Genome Research, vol.
Despite these advancements, still some mutations at off-target sites have been observed and suggest that further optimization of Cas9 is required; (g) an alternative approach for improving the specificity of Cas9 is the direct addition of Cas9 and sgRNA as ribonucleoprotein
(RNP) complexes to the cell for CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing .
Kwon et al., "DNA-free genome editing in plants with preassembled CRISPR-Cas9 ribonucleoproteins
," Nature Biotechnology, vol.
Some of the well-characterized ITAFs are human antigen R (HuR), La autoantigen, programed cell death 4 (PDCD4), polypyrimidine tract binding (PTB) protein, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein
A1 (hnRNPA1), hnRNAC1/C2 upstream of NRAS (UnR), nuclear factor 45 (NF45), insulinlike growth factor 2-binding protein 1 (IGF2BP1), Y-box protein 1 (YB1), and poly(C) binding protein (PCBP) [20, 49, 50].
THRIL recruits heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein
L (hnRNP L) to the TNF[alpha] promoter and increases the secretion of TNF[alpha], an inflammatory cytokine.
EIciRNAs are also abundant in nucleus, such as circEIF3J and circPAIP2, and can bind to U1 snRNP (small nuclear ribonucleoproteins
) in nucleus to form EIciRNA-U1 snRNP complexes.
Lupus Erythematosus (LE) is the root designation for a diverse array of illnesses that are linked together by the development of autoimmunity directed predominantly at the molecular constituents of nucleosomes and ribonucleoproteins
. These manifestations encompass a spectrum ranging from a few localized discoid LE lesions to the life-threatening systemic manifestations such as nephritis, central nervous system disease or vasculitis of systemic LE.
Antigen specificities include U1-SnRNP (small nuclear ribonucleoproteins
), Sm (Smith), U2-snRNP, U4/ U6-snRNP, SSA/Ro, SSB/La, and other less common antigens (Bradwell et al.
In lab dishes, the group assembled Cas9 ribonucleoproteins
, or RNPs, which combine the Cas9 protein with single-guide RNA.
These are important for remodeling of ribonucleoproteins
as they have the ability to disrupt interactions between protein and RNA (Tanner and Linder 2001; Zhu and Ren 2012).DEAD-box (DDX) proteins comprising of 38 members in humans is the biggest group of RNA helicases; presence of signature amino acid sequence (Asp-Glu-Ala- Asp or D-E-A-D) which is highly conserved is the reason for this name.