262 A typical mediolittoral zonation pattern in the northwestern Mediterranean consists of an upper layer consisting of barnacles (Chthamalus), an intermediate level of the laminar rhodophytes
(Rissoella verruculosa), and a lower level with mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and some coralline algae (Corallina elongata).
Finally, the expressed morphologies of two common rhodophytes
found in all microhabitats, Chondracanthus spinosus (Kutzing) and Pterocla-diella capillacea (Gmelin), are explored and the fitness benefits associated with the observed morphology considered.
This activity developed almost entirely in the countries on the Atlantic coast of Europe (France, Scotland, Ireland, Iceland, Norway, and Finland) using several species of phaeophytes (Alaria, Laminaria, Ascophyllum, Fucus, Pelvetia), and a few rhodophytes
Thus, a polyclonal antibody raised to a rhodophyte
LHCI should have a good chance of specifically recognizing the LHCI polypeptides in V.
corniculata) and 2 rhodophytes
(Laurencia papillosa and Polysiphonia opaca).
Even the possible crown-group multicellular rhodophytes
in 1.6 Ga Lower Vindhyan Supergroup in central India were reported, antedating the oldest previously accepted red alga in the fossil record by about 400 million years .
The color groups are brown algae (phaeophytes), green algae (chlorophytes), and red algae (rhodophytes
that represent an annual value of over US$1.3 billion (Blouin et al., 2011).
In addition, the live cover of eight epibenthic biotic characteristics (erect macroalgae, turf algae, calcareous rhodophytes
in the genus Porolithon, seagrasses, sponges, hydrocorals in the genus Millepora, encrusting non-scleractinian anthozoans, and scleractinians were ranked as follows: 1(0%), 2(1-5%), 3(6-10%), 4(11-25%), 5(26-50%), 6(51-75) and 7(76-100%).
The species is one of the few rhodophytes
that prevails in the brackish Baltic Sea (Novaczek & Breeman, 1990; Bird et al., 1991; Nielsen et al., 1995).