Catala and Scholfield (1994) recorded similar structures in antennal sensilla of hematophagous bug Rhodnius
(Reduviidae: Triatominae) as highly ornamented pores with 5-6 inner extensions.
(5) % of the population (4) and, in spite of vector control programs adopted since that time, the presence of nine species of triatomines are recorded, among which are Triatoma brasiliensis, Triatoma pseudomaculata, Panstrongylus megistus, Panstrongylus lutzi, Panstrongylus diasi, Rhodnius
nasutus, Triatoma melanocephala, Triatoma petrochiae and Triatoma rubrofasciata (3).
The spermatheca is present in all orders of insect and generally, there is one spermatheca per individual, although in Rhodnius
prolixus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) and representatives of Culicidae and Caliphoridae (Diptera) have been reported multiple spermathecae with different morphologies (Pascini and Martins, 2017).
Xenodiagnosis was conducted by using 20 stage 3 nymphs of Rhodnius
robustus and R.
cruzi en el triatomino Rhodnius
prolixus y en humanos procedentes de los estados Trujillo y Zulia.
En: Memorias: Taller Tecnico de Estudio sobre Rhodnius
pallescens, su Vigilancia y Control.
, when they successfully transformed a commensal symbiont in the hindgut lumen of Rhodnius
prolixus, Rhodococcus rhodnii, to express the cecropin A protein to kill the causative agent of Chagas disease, and Trypanosoma cruzi inside their host.
zerumbet and other plant species, notably 1,8-cineol and terpinen-4-ol, exhibited activity against hematophagous insects such as Triatoma infestans and Rhodnius
prolixus, belonging to the family Reduviidae [14-18].
The vector transmission of CD is mainly occurred by hematophagous triatomines of the genera Panstrongylus, Rhodnius
, and Triatoma.
So far, 153 species of triatomines were identified and those belonging to the Rhodnius
, Triatoma, and Panstrongylus genera are the major members of this group [5-7].
Various studies have reported at least two UCP--UCP4 and UCP5--in the mitochondria of invertebrates, including parasites such as the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (UCP4), insects such as the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster (UCP4), the blood sucking insect Rhodnius
prolixus (UCP4), and the cockroach Gromphadorhina cocquereliana.