Krider, 1982: The optical and radiation field signatures produced by lightning return strokes
Uman, "Review and evaluation of lightning return stroke
models including some aspects of their application," IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility, vol.
velocity, [V.sub.R] = 2[??]S/2[[THETA].sub.R.sup.2] = (2 x 314.15 x 0.008) / (2 x 0.370)
During the flick downstroke, the aesthetasc tuft sweeps through the water at a mean velocity of 0.17 m [s.sup.-1], traveling only a short linear distance (~4 mm); during the return stroke
, the lateral flagellum moves more slowly, at a mean velocity of 0.06 m [s.sup.-1], and the antennule is stationary during a brief pause, lasting 0.24 s on average, before the next downstroke (Koehl, 2011; Reidenbach and Koehl, 2011; Waldrop, 2012).
Napolitano, "An analytical formulation of the electromagnetic field generated by lightning return strokes
", IEEE Trans.
Rakov, "On the use of lumped sources in lightning return stroke
Section 2 explains the electromagnetic nature of the return strokes
. Recent work on more detailed incorporation of the effects of grounding on the earth end of the return stroke
 is not used in the work reported herein.
First return stroke
Electrical current courses between the ground and the cloud, creating the visible lightning flash.
It listed the main technical features of SP56 as: simultaneous skiving function (interior and exterior) for hoses measuring up to 2"; interior and exterior skiving function (not simultaneous) for hoses measuring up to 3"; fittings insertion function for hoses measuring up to 3"; self-centring pneumatic clamp; device for centring the return stroke
of the piston which allows accelerating the skiving and insertion function; safety device which prevents the actuation of the machine when the safety casing is open.
Because less air enters the pump there is less air to exhaust and this helps the pump to start its next cycle as there is less resistance to the return stroke
. There is also major additional benefit of a reduction in the noise level of the exhaust air.
On the return stroke
, the plows ride up onto tracks to be pulled back to the starting position, without dragging material in the wrong direction.