have described two patients with tremor and dystonia caused by AVM in the contralateral basal ganglia, thalamus and mesencephalon, one patient with torticollis and AVM in the posterior thalamus, and another one with retrocollis
and AVM in the parietal lobe.
These movements, which are confused with dystonia, include retrocollis
, opistotonic posture, and slanting of the head on one side (25).
They were categorized as torticollis, laterocollis, anterocollis, retrocollis, and combined form according to their clinical manifestation.
83%, of the 17 patients with combined form, 11 had torticollis in addition to retrocollis, 4 had torticollis in addition to anterocollis, and 2 had multiple-sided rotation) of the patients.
Any of the 52 muscles in the neck can be involved in combination to produce involuntary movements in a sustained or spasmodic nature in a combination of anterocollis, laterocollis, rotational torticollis or retrocollis
Immediate exchange transfusion is recommended in any infant who is jaundiced with signs of the acute bilirubin encephalopathy including hypertonia, arching, retrocollis
and opisthotonos (head and heels drawn back), fever, and high-pitched cry--even if the bilirubin is decreasing (AAP, 2004) (see Table 4).
Typically they will have a retrocollis
or torticollis of the neck; tightening of the muscles in the shoulder girdle; or other sustained muscle postures of the neck, trunk, face, or axial muscles.