The ocular manifestations of anaemia are dry eye, conjunctival haemorrhage, lid haematoma, orbital haemorrhage, retinal haemorrhage
, subhyaloid haemorrhage, central retinal vein occlusion, vitreous haemorrhage, optic disc oedema and optic neuropathy.
Other includes retrobulbar haemorrhage, proptosis, increased IOP, vitreous haemorrhage, retinal haemorrhage
and peri ocular ecchymosis.
The opthalmoscopic examination of dog showed pappiledema and retinal haemorrhage
. The ultrasound scanning of abdomen showed splenomegaly and indistinct cortico-medullary junction in both kidneys.
Dr Hobbs added the "triad" of brain injuries - bleeding on the brain, retinal haemorrhage
and brain dysfunction - pointed to non-accidental trauma.
However, some cases progress to a severe form of the disease and show retinal haemorrhage
and tractional retinal detachment, which require surgical interventions such as vitrectomy [2, 3].
She also suffered from multi-layered retinal haemorrhage
, which aroused a doctor's suspicions that she could have been subjected to abuse.
Clinical signs vary from intermittent fever, lymph node enlargement, kidney and retinal haemorrhage
, weight loss and eye problems to bone marrow suppression.
Ms Tysiac suffered a retinal haemorrhage
and her eyesight worsened drastically after she had her third baby, and she fears she may go blind.
When seen by a doctor, she had injuries to her rib cage, a fracture to her left shoulder, a leg injury and a retinal haemorrhage
in her eye.
Medical evidence showed he also suffered a retinal haemorrhage
and a number of bruises, which were "non-accidental" and consistent with a degree of force being used on him.
Ocular involvement is common in 30%--100% of these patients like hypertensive retinopathy, exudative retinal detachment, vitreous haemorrhage, retinal haemorrhage
, ischaemic optic neuropathy and hypertensive choroidopathy.
Tests found Mr Murdock had suffered a retinal haemorrhage
- a massive bleed in the eye, suspected to be a complication caused by diabetes.