CT evaluation of anomalies of inferior vena cava and left renal vein
. AJR 1979; (132): 759-763.
Here a case of double left renal vein
and its embryological basis is discussed.
The exact cause of this dilatation is not clear but can be attributed to the increased renal venous pressure due to some pathological conditions like renal vein
thrombosis or post-operative renal ligation (2,8).
Normally the disposition of the structures at the hilum from anterior to posterior side is renal vein
, renal artery, and the renal pelvis (VAP).
An intra-operative laparoscopic ultrasound probe was used to identify the margins of the tumor and the extent of the renal vein
tumor thrombus, which was also visualized grossly and limited to the segmental renal vein
Caption: FIGURE 1: CT scan cross section: thrombosis of the left and right renal veins
and of the portal vein.
The renal vein
was anastomosed to the common iliac vein, whereas the reconstructed renal artery was anastomosed end to side to the external iliac artery and the upper polar artery to the common iliac artery.
The entrapment of the left renal vein
(LRV) between the abdominal aorta (Ao) and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is commonly referred to as nutcracker syndrome (NCS) [1, 2].
Anatomical study of the renal veins
observed during 342 living-donor nephrectomies.
Caption: Figure 1: (a) CT axial images that presented from caudal to cranial sections show double IVC (arrows) below the renal veins
. (b) The right IVC receives the right renal vein
Contrast abdominopelvic CT showed an old complete thrombosis of the left common iliac vein, recent complete thromboses of the left venous junctions (external and internal iliac veins, common femoral deep and superficial veins, ascending lumbar vein and various presacral collaterals), dilated azygos vein, partial eccentric thrombosis of the IVC, approximately 18 mm lower than the flow level of the right renal vein
, with a 5mm clot on a length of 27mm, with a reduced caliber on almost its entire length from the origin to the level of the caudate lobe.
The renal vein
was divided after controlling with Hem-o-lok clips.