It is not fully revealed how much Pu[O.sub.2] is affected by the large number of variables, such as total renal blood flow
or medullary metabolic activity
 Other causes include dehydration, polycythaemia, reduced renal blood flow
due to shock and hyperosmolality, congenital heart disease and deficiency of anticoagulants like protein C and S, Antithrombin III, factor V Leiden mutation and prothrombin mutation.
Quantitative analyses of A, medium arterial blood pressure (MAP); B, renal blood flow
(RBF), and C, renal vascular resistance (RVR) in Wistar (normotensive) and genetically hypertensive (SHR) animals in the control group (CTL), rats receiving cyclosporine-A (CsA) or receiving CsA and treated with bosentan (CsA + BOS) or macitentan (CsA + MAC) for 15 days.
It is an important issue how to more accurately assess renal blood flow
. As a noninvasive method, ultrasound is commonly used by ICU physicians to assess renal blood flow
in critically ill patients.
Under physiological conditions, TP receptors play an important role in maintenance of renal blood flow
, mediation of renin release, and regulation of sodium excretion .
A contact-type laser Doppler blood flowmeter FLO-C1 (Omegawave Inc., Tokyo) was used to monitor hepatic, small intestinal, and renal blood flow
. Fiberglass probes JF1 connected to GJ probe (Omegawave Inc., Tokyo) were made to contact with the surface of the right side of the liver, the small intestine (3 cm distal to the duodenum), and the right kidney to monitor the blood flow through each of these organs at a depth of less than 1 mm below the organ surface [7, 8].
It is believed that, by increasing renal blood flow
and urinary flow through hydration, it is possible to reduce the renal exposure to contrast media .
To obtain the RI and PI values of renal blood flow
, color Doppler was used to visualize the intrarenal vasculature.
Excess body weight gain may raise blood pressure, which can lead to increased renal blood flow
. Consequently, these hemodynamic changes cause an increase of glomerular size accompanied by mesangial matrix expansion and podocyte injury [6-8].
Pre-renal causes include reduction in renal blood flow
including dehydration, hypotension etc.
The main alterations in this regard relating to antibiotic concentrations are: (i) increased volume of distribution of drugs; (ii) increased cardiac output; (iii) increased hepatic and renal blood flow
(and hence increased metabolism and excretion); and (iv) low serum protein levels, and hence altered protein binding of drugs (Fig.
(5) In the kidneys, prostaglandins regulate cellular activity and renal blood flow
. (5,6) Renal effects of NSAID-induced blockade prostaglandin production can include mild to moderate fluid and electrolyte abnormalities, acute renal failure, nephrotic syndrome, papillary necrosis and cardio-renal interactions (e.g., hypertension, chronic heart failure).