If present-day Yukon grasslands are relicts
of the now extinct Beringian biome, it implies they had a consistent long-term floristic composition and a continuous in situ existence prior to the Holocene, which in southwest Yukon, judging by the rise in Betula (birch) abundance, began after 12000 calendar years before present (cal yr BP) (Anderson et al., 1988; Vermaire and Cwynar, 2010).
This expansion was followed by a postglacial range breakup, retreat to moderate elevations of high mountain systems, and a formation of relict
enclaves in smaller hilly areas.
Additionally alder (Alnus glutinosa), maritime pine (Pinus pinaster s.l.) and Pyrenean oak (Quercus pyrenaica) forests which locally include relict
Spanish black pines were also sampled.
Microsporidia, it turned out, were nowhere near being relicts
. Examining a handful of genes, Keeling and other researchers demonstrated that the single-gene tree had put microsporidia in the wrong kingdom.
The majority of these young zircons are characterized by high 176Hf/177Hf isotopic ratios and positive Hf(T) values that are similar to magmatic zircons from the Gangdese batholith, indicating the latter has been a predominant source provenance of the sedimentary relict
. It's the first time to discover the Late Cretaceous deposition in this area.
At the end of the experiment, all surviving females were collected and femur length, the number of follicular relicts
(eggs laid), and the proportion of functional ovarian follicles determined.
The present findings indicate that some scree spiders in Central Europe could be regarded as relicts
of former climatic periods ("glacial relicts
She writes of feathers and hairs as "relicts
of life, testimony to a passing we all share, one that I am bound up in as the creatures that passed that night through my hands" as she creates a "tiny mimetic world on a bit of carbon steel."
The cluster analysis allowed the distinction of 32 independent community relicts
(10 faunal associations, 17 subsets of associations and 5 faunal assemblages, sensu Fursich, 1984), dominated by bivalves and brachiopods (Table 3).
Moreover, some Michigan herpetological species are undoubtedly in the process of re-occupying new habitats (Holman 1992) while others have been left as relicts
since the Middle Holocene warm, dry spell (hypsithermal event) was replaced by a cooler climate, especially the "Little Ice Age" that occurred only a few hundred years ago (Bernabo 1981; Kapp 1999; Holman et al.
During the past 35 years, the least shrew (Cryptotis parva) has expanded its distribution along riverine and other mesic corridors in western parts of its distribution, although some recently discovered populations in the West might represent relicts
of a previous Pleistocene distribution.