Here it blocks the negative feedback that would normally inhibit the further release of neurotransmitter
into the synapse (Figure 1, E).
The calcium triggers release of neurotransmitters
from vesicles into the synapse (Figure 1b).
Calcium itself can be a second messenger, and is required to stimulate many neuronal activities, including the release of neurotransmitters
The metal doesn't, for example, promote the binding of synaptotagmin to a protein called syntaxin, one of the steps that normally lead to a release of neurotransmitters
Just how acupuncture works is not well understood, but it may stimulate the release of neurotransmitters
such as endorphins and serotonin or otherwise inhibit pain transmission.
Therefore, inhibiting the release of neurotransmitters
from these neurons through the actions of the G(o) protein is key to forming the memory trace and associative memories.
It may protect against Alzheimer's disease by aiding nerve conduction and the release of neurotransmitters
, the researchers say.
Opioids most commonly inhibit release of neurotransmitters
, particularly norepinephrine and acetylcholine, although in the hippocampus the result is paradoxical disinhibition, due to its impact on inhibitory interneurons.
The researchers then used live imaging techniques to monitor the release of neurotransmitters
and electron microscopy to visualize L-type channels at synapses.