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Oncogene product defective in multiple endocrine neoplasia types IIA and IIB and Hirschsprung disease. It belongs to that class of membrane receptors with tyrosine kinase activity.


abbreviation for rational emotive therapy.


A gene on chromosome 10q11.2 that encodes a receptor for tyrosine-protein kinase involved in various cellular processes, including cell proliferation and migration, neuronal navigation and cell differentiation, upon binding with glial-cell-derived neurotrophic factor family ligands. RET regulates cell death/survival, balance and positional information. It orchestrates molecular cascades during intestinal, gut neuroendocrine, gut MALT and renal organogenesis, and it modulates cell adhesion by cleaving caspase in sympathetic neurons and mediates cell migration in an integrin (e.g., ITGB1 and ITGB3)-dependent manner. RET triggers apoptosis by intracellular caspase cleavage; it promotes survival and downregulates growth hormone production, but triggers apoptosis in absence of GDNF.

Molecular pathology
RET mutations are associated with  neuroendocrine cancers, which are characterised by defects in integrin-regulated cell migration.


Abbrev. for rearranged during TRANSFECTION.

retinoscopy (ret) 

The determination of the refractive state of the eye by means of a retinoscope. Syn. skiascopy; shadow test. See chromoretinoscopy.
dynamic retinoscopy Retinoscopy performed with the patient fixating binocularly a near object such as a letter, a word, or a picture mounted on, or held close to, the retinoscope and wearing the distance correction. No working distance lens power is subtracted or added to the finding since the plane of regard is at the same distance as the retinoscope. Syn. book retinoscopy (this term is restricted to the case when the patient is reading a text); cognitive retinoscopy (when the patient fixates a single letter or reads some words); near point retinoscopy. See lag of accommodation; objective accommodation; MEM retinoscopy; Mohindra's technique of retinoscopy; static retinoscopy.
MEM retinoscopy A type of dynamic retinoscopy in which the retinoscope is held in the same plane as the near fixation target and lenses are interposed very briefly in front of one eye, while the other eye fixates the target. The aim of the method is to estimate the fundus reflex motion without disturbing the accommodative stance, that is, by leaving each lens in front of one eye for less than one second, until the neutral point is achieved. The results in non-presbyopic subjects generally show a lag of accommodation of 0 to +0.75 D. Note: MEM is an acronym of 'monocular estimate method'.
Mohindra's technique of retinoscopy Retinoscopy performed in a darkened room at 50 cm (20 inches) with the patient fixating the retinoscope light monocularly (the other eye being occluded). Distance retinoscopic refraction is derived by adding −1.00 D (to take into account the working distance and the state of accommodation in the dark) to the value found by near retinoscopy. The technique is used in paediatric optometry. Syn. monocular near retinoscopy. See resting state of accommodation; dynamic retinoscopy; MEM retinoscopy.
near point retinoscopy See dynamic retinoscopy; Mohindra's technique of.
static retinoscopy Retinoscopy performed with the patient fixating a target at distance or with accommodation paralysed.
References in periodicals archive ?
Multiple roles for the receptor tyrosine kinase axl in tumor formation.
Ror1, a cell surface receptor tyrosine kinase is expressed in chronic lymphocytic leukemia and may serve as a putative target for therapy.
Muller-Tidow et al have analyzed expression of all human receptor tyrosine kinases (n=56) in malignant tumors of different origins and normal control samples by quantitative real-time RT-PCR.
Schlessinger, together with other scientists from the laboratories and Kolltan, co-authored an article in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS), titled "Structural basis for KIT receptor tyrosine kinase inhibition by antibodies targeting the D4 membrane-proximal region".
M2 PHARMA-July 30, 2013-Kolltan licenses antibody targeting Her3 receptor tyrosine kinase from MedImmune(C)2013 M2 COMMUNICATIONS
ARQ 197 is a selective small molecule inhibitor of the c-MET receptor tyrosine kinase, while erlotinib is an inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor.
reached a collaboration and licensing agreement for Volitinib (HMPL-504), a new targeted therapy and an inhibitor of the c-Met receptor tyrosine kinase for the treatment of cancer.
FGFRs are a family of receptor tyrosine kinases which may be upregulated in various tumor cell types and may be involved in tumor cell differentiation and proliferation, tumor angiogenesis and tumor cell survival.
The topics include ligand-based drug design, drug-like properties and decision making in medicinal chemistry, in vivo imaging in drug discovery, peptide and protein drug design, enzyme inhibitors: biostructure-based and mechanism-based design, ion channels: structure and function, acetylcholine, dopamine and serotonin, opioid and cannabinoid receptors, targeting receptor tyrosine kinases, and antibiotics.
These receptor tyrosine kinases are involved in both normal cellular function and in pathologic processes such as oncogenesis, metastasis, tumour angiogenesis, and maintenance of the tumour microenvironment.
The themes are historical perspectives, principles of cellular signaling by receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), specific molecular features and mechanisms of key RTK families, development, and disease and medicine.
Thus, biochanin A may be an effective chemotherapeutic agent for breast cancer because of its ability to affect both hormonal receptors and receptor tyrosine kinases and to decrease intracellular ROS levels.

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