Data relating to the distance to the hibernaculum were collated and analysed using the Rayleigh test (Fisher 1993) on log-transformed distances.
Differences in gender and asymmetry in direction were also tested using a circular regression model and Rayleigh test.
Male Female N 73 267 Length of mean 0.488 0.398 vector (radians) Mean time [+ or -] 11:15 [+ or -] 00:36 12:19 [+ or -] 00:23 SE (= mean vector) Concentration 1.116 0.868 Rayleigh test
(Z) 17.40 42.38 Rayleigh test
(P) 2.77 x [10.sup.-8] <1 x [10.sup.-12] 95% confidence 10:03 (150.954) & 11:32 (173.23) & interval 12:26 (186.572) 13:06 (196.603) (lower & upper) Total N 340 Length of mean 0.415 vector (radians) Mean time [+ or -] 12:03 [+ or -] 00:20 SE (= mean vector) Concentration 0.911 Rayleigh test
(Z) 58.44 Rayleigh test
(P) <1 x [10.sup.-12] 95% confidence 11:23 (170.969) & interval 12:43 (190.797) (lower & upper)
Based on the dates of field visits, the test generates an average vector ([mu]), its significance (Rayleigh test p), and an average vector length (r).
Considering all of the studied species, the circular analysis pointed out a significant tendency (Rayleigh test p < 0.001) for dispersal to occur in September (Figure 4).
Web orientation on trees (eight main directions) was interpreted through circular statistics using the Rayleigh test (Fisher 1993).
6B) reveal a significant (Rayleigh test, P < 0.05) preference for the northern side of trees, and the partially open canopy data (Fig.
The mean angles for each set were then tested for significance (Rayleigh test; Zar, 1999).
Rayleigh test P values (Greenwood and Durand, 1955) were calculated using a numerical integration algorithm and checked against tables in Zar (1999).
First order statistics (Rayleigh test
) were employed to test for significant deviations from random distribution.
The overall data set was combined and analyzed using first- and second-order statistics, and the null hypotheses were accepted or rejected based on the Z and F test statistics (one sample Rayleigh test
and one sample Hotelling's, respectively).
were used to determine if the bats in these experiments were oriented in any direction.