randomized controlled trial


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ran·dom·i·zed con·trolled tri·al (RCT),

an epidemiologic experiment in which subjects in a population are allocated randomly into groups, called "experimental" or "study" and "control" groups to receive or not receive an experimental therapeutic or preventive regimen, procedure, maneuver, or intervention.

ran·dom·i·zed con·trolled tri·al

(RCT) (ran'dŏm-īzd kŏn-trōld trī'ăl)
A type of experiment that randomly assigns subjects to various interventions, including a control group, in order to minimize the risk of bias.
See also: control group

randomized controlled trial

Abbreviation: RCT
An experimental study to assess the effects of a particular variable, e.g., a drug or treatment, in which subjects are assigned randomly to an experimental, placebo, or control group. The experimental group receives the drug or procedure; the placebo group's medication is disguised to resemble the drug being investigated. The control group receives nothing. Members of each group are prevented from knowing whether they are receiving active therapy. The researchers gathering the data are also typically blinded to group assignment.

CAUTION!

Although RCTs are an essential element in proving clinical relationships (such as between the use of a new drug and the safe cure of a disease), most RCTs do not enroll enough patients for a long enough time to detect rare events.
See also: trial

trial, randomized controlled (RCT) 

An experimental design used for testing the effectiveness of a new medication or a new therapeutic procedure. Individuals are assigned randomly to a treatment group (experimental therapy) and a control group (placebo or standard therapy) and the outcomes are compared. The trial is strengthened by 'blinding' or masking (single-blind, double-blind or triple-blind study) and cross-over design. RCT is the most accepted scientific method of determining the benefit of a drug or a therapeutic procedure. It represents the best evidence available, which is integrated into the final decision about the management of a condition by healthcare practitioners in what is called evidence-based healthcare. Syn. randomized clinical trial. See sampling; significance; study.
References in periodicals archive ?
All published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) after 1995 with sample size more than 100 and were published in English comparing the effectiveness of laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair with open mesh inguinal hernia repair were eligible for inclusion.
I would never presume to challenge standardized, evidence-based practice at its own game, but I can say with some certainty that it is absurd to use randomized controlled trials to define everything important in critical care.
Finally, in 2015, Saltychev, et al, published a systematic review and meta-analysis of seven randomized controlled trials. This study indicated that there was moderate evidence that surgical treatment is not more effective than active exercises on reducing pain intensity caused by shoulder impingement.
De qi is a combination of sensations stimulated by manipulation of acupuncture needles - soreness, tingling, coolness, warmth and others radiating at the insertion points - but has not been validated by randomized controlled trials.
In 2008, Laupattarakasem, et al, conducted a systematic review of three randomized controlled trials including 271 patients which revealed that there is gold-level evidence that arthroscopic debridement has no benefit for knee osteoarthritis (mechanical or inflammatory causes).
Kotecha and coworkers assessed each study in terms of its degree of bias due to confounding by indication and other limitations using two standardized bias scoring systems: the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool for randomized controlled trials and the Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Non-randomized Studies (RoBANS).
(1.) Jemmott JB III et al., HIV/STD risk reduction interventions for African American and Latino adolescent girls at an adolescent medicine clinic: a randomized controlled trial, Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 2005, 159(5):440-449.
Smith, who is director of cancer screening for the ACS, Atlanta, and his associates examined deaths from breast cancer during three time periods: 1968-1977, before mammography had been introduced; 1978-1987, when some women aged 40-74 received regular screening mammograms as part of a randomized controlled trial; and 1988-1996, when screening was offered to all women aged 40-69.
CHICAGO -- Lowering LDL cholesterol early in life would prevent three times more cardiovascular events per unit of LDL reduction compared with the current practice of initiating LDL-lowering statin therapy decades later, based on the findings of a novel genomic analysis known as a mendelian randomized controlled trial.
The findings stem from the Program on Surgical Control of the Hyperlipidemias (POSCH) randomized controlled trial which kicked off at the University of Minnesota in 1975.
People with a partner who is known to be infected with gonorrhea or chlamydia have a lower risk of having either infection if they use condoms consistently than if they do not, according to an analysis of enrollment data from sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic attendees participating in a multisite randomized controlled trial. (1) Overall, the odds of infection were reduced by 20% if participants had used condoms consistently in the previous three months (odds ratio, 0.8).
Evaluation of chlorhexidine and silver-sulfadiazine impregnated central venous catheters for the prevention of bloodstream infection in leukaemic patients: a randomized controlled trial. J Hosp Infect 1997;37:145-56.

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