15b) reveals partly positive values of the solar cloud radiative forcing
. This effect can be seen in situations where the direct part of solar irradiance is not attenuated, while diffuse radiation is enhanced by scattering processes in surrounding clouds.
Dani et al., "Aerosol radiative forcing
during dust events over New Delhi, India," Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.
R., Minnis P., Nakajima T., and Tsushima Y., "Radiative forcing
by contrails", in proceedings of Annales Geophysicae, 1999, pp.
The trapping capability called 'radiative forcing
' is used as comparative measure for assessing the warming or cooling influences of anthropogenic and natural factors on global climate.
Solar radiations are generally scattered and absorbed by aerosols causing direct radiative forcing
which warms up the planet and indirect forcing through their important role in cloud physics causing planet to cool down.
The clear sky total (direct + diffuse) aerosol radiative forcing
at the surface and top of the atmosphere was calculated in the shortwave (0.2-4.0 [micro]m) region using the SBDART model, developed by Ricchiazzi et al.
Since RCP 2.6 is supposed to be a stabilization scenario with a target radiative forcing
of 2.6 W[m.sup.-2] or equivalently with a total GHG (plus aerosol effects) concentration of 450 ppm C[O.sub.2]-eq, we assume that the radiative forcing
of other GHGs and aerosols is kept constant at 0.65 W[m.sup.-2] and the remainder is due to [CO.SUB.2].By using an approximate formula (13) for the radiative forcing
The increase of the absorbed solar radiation due to polar tilt was also confirmed by SOLRAD model which computed a net gain of solar radiative forcing
due to enhanced obliquity.
in radiative forcing
since 1750 and is the second most important greenhouse
In this article, we used the results from 19 state-of-the-art climate models to span the largest possible range of intermodel differences and the uncertainties of GHG radiative forcing
. We also used recent empirical studies to narrow the uncertainty range associated with temperature-diarrhea regression coefficients in WHO04.
Recently however, despite the relatively lower contributions of air transport to the overall anthropogenic radiative forcing
, aviation is under unprecedented pressure to reduce its environmental footprint per passenger kilometers.