radiation colitis

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inflammation of the colon. There are many types of colitis, each with different etiologies; the differential diagnosis involves the clinical history, stool examinations, sigmoidoscopy, and radiologic studies such as a lower gastrointestinal series. One of the most common types is idiopathic ulcerative colitis, which is characterized by extensive ulcerations along the mucosa and submucosa of the bowel. Other types often can be traced to such etiologic factors as bacteria and viruses, drugs such as antibiotics, and radiation from x-rays or radioactive materials. Strong emotions can cause hypermotility of the gut and thereby produce symptoms typical of colitis. True colitis should be distinguished from irritable bowel syndrome (formerly referred to by other names such as mucous colitis, irritable colon, and spastic colon); in the latter condition there is no actual inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa. Almost all forms of colitis cause lower abdominal pain, bleeding from the bowel, and diarrhea. The patient may have as many as 20 bowel movements a day, resulting in serious depletion of body fluids and electrolytes. Treatment is aimed at eliminating or mitigating the underlying cause of the inflammatory process, resting and soothing the inflamed bowel, and restoring the nutritional status and fluid and electrolyte balance to normal.
antibiotic-associated colitis colitis associated with antimicrobial therapy, most commonly with lincomycin or clindamycin, but also with other broad-spectrum antibiotics, such as ampicillin and tetracycline. It can range from mild nonspecific colitis and diarrhea to severe fulminant pseudomembranous colitis with profuse watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever. The inflammation may be caused by a toxin produced by Clostridium difficile, a microorganism that is normally present in the resident bowel flora of infants, but is rarely found in adults. Presumably, the disruption of the normal flora allows the growth of C. difficile.
collagenous colitis a type of colitis of unknown etiology characterized by deposits of collagenous material beneath the epithelium of the colon, with crampy abdominal pain and watery diarrhea.
Crohn's colitis Crohn's disease.
diversion colitis inflammation in a nonfunctioning colonic pouch created by corrective surgery; it resolves following restoration of intestinal continuity.
ischemic colitis acute vascular insufficiency of the colon, usually involving the portion supplied by the inferior mesenteric artery; symptoms include pain at the left iliac fossa, bloody diarrhea, low-grade fever, abdominal distention, and abdominal tenderness. The classic radiologic sign is thumbprinting, due to localized elevation of the mucosa by submucosal hemorrhage or edema. Ulceration may follow.
pseudomembranous colitis a severe acute inflammation of the bowel mucosa, with the formation of pseudomembranous plaques; it is usually associated with antimicrobial therapy (antibiotic-associated colitis). The common symptoms are watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever. The pathologic lesions are yellow-green pseudomembranous plaques of mucinous inflammatory exudate distributed in patches over the colonic mucosa and sometimes also in the small intestine. Called also pseudomembranous enterocolitis.
radiation colitis colitis resulting from radiation therapy to the abdominal region; it is manifested clinically by tenesmus, pain, rectal bleeding, diarrhea, and telangiectases. Malabsorption, ulceration, and partial or complete obstruction may follow.
ulcerative colitis see ulcerative colitis.

radiation colitis

Colitis due to damage of the bowel by radiation therapy. The symptoms are those of an inflamed bowel (pain, cramps, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding). Malabsorption may develop as a result of permanent injury to the mucosa.
See also: colitis
References in periodicals archive ?
Independent evolution of two afflictions (chronic radiation proctitis and basal cell carcinoma), initially considered as both malignant and related because they were simultaneously triggered by the same factor (NOAC), turned up to share the same etiology: pelvic radiotherapy.
However, hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HOT) and formalin application were reported to be effective in radiation proctitis [3-8].
They have shown that Vit C and E decreased bleeding and diarrhea in patients with chronic radiation proctitis caused by pelvic irradiation (Kennedy et al., 2001).
His posttransplant course was complicated by mildly reduced left ventricular systolic function with an ejection fraction of 40%, impaired left ventricular relaxation with diastolic dysfunction, prostate cancer with radiation proctitis, and calcineurin inhibitor-induced renal insufficiency.
Also, there is a recognized problem with fecal incontinence and, therefore, the procedure should be avoided in those with severe radiation proctitis. (12) The trans-sphincteric approach cannot be used for large, complex fistulas due to limited exposure.
Ulceration and stricture formation also occur in radiation proctitis. (11) However, the most common endoscopic findings are congested mucosa and telangiectasias that eventually coalesce (14) (Figure 2).
Patient underwent colonoscopy which revealed telangiectatic areas suggestive of radiation proctitis. Biopsy from ulcerated area of the rectum revealed inflammatory changes with no evidence of malignancy.
In addition, the company stated ProctiGard is a treatment options for rectal mucositis and radiation proctitis, a debilitating oncology side effect.
Dr Johan said it was 'very unlikely' the profuse dark blood was caused by radiation proctitis, which the Crown alleges was the correct diagnosis.
The most frequent complication after radiotherapy treatment for prostate cancer is radiation proctitis with incidence rates ranging from 2% to 39% [1].
Radiation proctitis. A randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover trial (2008) evaluated the long-term risk of radiation-induced injury in conditions such as refractory radiation proctitis.
For radiation proctitis, plasma argon coagulation has recently become the preferred method of treatment.

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