radiation

(redirected from Radiation Injury)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia.

radiation

 [ra″de-a´shun]
1. a proceeding outward from a common center.
2. a structure made up of parts that go outward from a center, especially a tract of the central nervous system made up of fibers that go out in different dfirections.
3. energy carried by waves or a stream of particles. One type is electromagnetic radiation, which consists of wave motion of electric and magnetic fields. The quantum theory is based on the fact that electromagnetic waves consist of discrete “packets” of electromagnetic radiation, called photons, which have neither mass nor charge and have an energy inversely proportional to the wavelength of the wave. In order of increasing photon energy and decreasing wavelength, the electromagnetic spectrum is divided into radio waves, infrared light, visible light, ultraviolet light, and x-rays. 

Another type is the radiation emitted by radioactive materials. alpha particles are high-energy helium-4 nuclei consisting of two protons and two neutrons, emitted by radioisotopes of heavy elements such as uranium. beta particles are high-energy electrons emitted by radioisotopes of lighter elements. gamma rays are high-energy photons emitted along with alpha and beta particles and also emitted alone by metastable radionuclides, such as technetium-99m. Gamma rays have energies in the x-ray region of the spectrum and differ from x-rays only in that they are produced by radioactive decay rather than by x-ray machines.

Radiation with enough energy to knock electrons out of atoms and produce ions is called ionizing radiation and includes alpha particles, beta particles, x-rays, and gamma rays. This kind of radiation can produce tissue damage directly by striking a vital molecule, such as DNA, or indirectly by striking a water molecule and producing highly reactive free radicals that chemically attack vital molecules. The effects of radiation can kill cells, make them unable to reproduce, or cause nonlethal mutations, producing cancer cells or birth defects in offspring. The radiosensitivity of normal tissues or cancer cells increases with their rate of cell division and decreases with their rate of cell specialization. Highly radiosensitive cells include lymphocytes, bone marrow hematopoietic cells, germ cells, and intestinal epithelial cells. Radiosensitive cancers include leukemias and lymphomas, seminoma, dysgerminoma, granulosa cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma of the gastric epithelium, and squamous cell carcinoma of skin, mouth, nose and throat, cervix, and bladder.

The application of radiation, whether by x-ray or radioactive substances, for treatment of various illnesses is called radiation therapy or radiotherapy.

Three types of units are used to measure ionizing radiation. The roentgen (R) is a unit of exposure dose applicable only to x-rays and gamma rays. It is the amount of radiation that produces 2.58 × 10−4 coulomb of positive and negative ions passing through 1 kilogram of dry air. The rad is a unit of absorbed dose equal to 100 ergs of energy absorbed per 1 g of absorbing material; the absorbed dose depends both on the type of radiation and on the material in which it is absorbed. The rem is a unit of absorbed dose equivalent that produces the same biologic effect as 1 rad of high-energy x-rays. For beta and gamma radiation, 1 rem is approximately equal to 1 rad; for alpha radiation, 1 rad is approximately 20 rem.

Previously, doses administered in radiation therapy were commonly specified as measured exposure doses in roentgens. The current practice is to specify the absorbed dose in the tissue or organ of interest in rads. Many personnel monitoring devices read out in rems. Eventually, the rad and rem may be replaced by the new SI units, the gray and sievert; 1 gray equals 100 rad, and 1 sievert equals 100 rem.
Radiation Hazards. Harmful effects of radiation include serious disturbances of bone marrow and other blood-forming organs, burns, and sterility. There may be permanent damage to genes, which results in genetic mutations. The mutations can be transmitted to future generations. Radiation also may produce harmful effects on the embryo or fetus, bringing about fetal death or malformations. Long-term studies of groups of persons exposed to radiation have shown that radiation acts as a carcinogen; that is, it can produce cancer, especially leukemia. It also may predispose persons to the development of cataracts. 

Exposure to large doses of radiation over a short period of time produces a group of symptoms known as the acute radiation syndrome. These symptoms include general malaise, nausea, and vomiting, followed by a period of remission of symptoms. Later, the patient develops more severe symptoms such as fever, hemorrhage, fluid loss, anemia, and central nervous system involvement. The symptoms then gradually subside or become more severe, and may lead to death.
Radiation Protection. In order to avoid the radiation hazards mentioned above, one must be aware of the three basic principles of time, distance, and shielding involved in protection from radiation. Obviously, the longer one stays near a source of radiation the greater will be the exposure. The same is true of proximity to the source; the closer one gets to a source of radiation the greater the exposure. 

Shielding is of special importance when time and distance cannot be completely utilized as safety factors. In such instances lead, which is an extremely dense material, is used as a protective device. The walls of diagnostic x-ray rooms are lined with lead, and lead containers are used for radium, cobalt-60, and other radioactive materials used in radiotherapy.

Monitoring devices such as the film badge, thermoluminescent dosimeter, or pocket monitor are worn by persons working near sources of radiation. These devices contain special detectors that are sensitive to radiation and thus serve as guides to the amount of radiation to which a person has been exposed. For monitoring large areas in which radiation hazards may pose a problem, survey meters such as the Geiger counter may be used. The survey meter also is useful in finding sources of radiation such as a radium implant, which might be lost.

Sensible use of these protective and monitoring devices can greatly reduce unnecessary exposure to radiation and allow for full realization of the many benefits of radiation.
Penetrating capacity of different types of radiation. From Ignatavicius and Workman, 2002.
Radiation is emitted by radioactive material. Radiation quantity is measured in roentgens, rads, or rems, depending on precise use. From Bushong, 2001.
corpuscular radiation particles emitted in nuclear disintegration, including alpha and beta particles, protons, neutrons, positrons, and deuterons.
electromagnetic radiation energy, unassociated with matter, that is transmitted through space by means of waves (electromagnetic waves) traveling in all instances at 3×1010 cm or 186,284 miles per second, but ranging in length from 1011 cm (electrical waves) to 10−12 cm (cosmic rays) and including radio waves, infrared, visible light and ultraviolet, x-rays, and gamma rays.
extrafocal radiation radiation that arises from a source other than the focal spot of the x-ray tube.
infrared radiation the portion of the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation of wavelengths between 0.75 and 1000 μm; see also infrared.
interstitial radiation energy emitted by radium, radon, or some other radiopharmaceutical inserted directly into the tissue; see also radiation therapy.
ionizing radiation corpuscular or electromagnetic radiation that is capable of producing ions, directly or indirectly, in its passage through matter. See also radiation.
optic radiation either of two large fan-shaped fiber tracts in the brain extending from the lateral geniculate body on either side to the striate cortex
primary radiation that coming directly from a source, such as a radioactive substance or an x-ray tube, without interactions with matter.
pyramidal radiation fibers extending from the pyramidal tract to the cortex.
scatter radiation (secondary radiation) that generated by the interaction of primary radiation with matter. See illustration.
Three types of radiation—the useful beam, leakage radiation, and scatter radiation. From Bushong, 2001.
striothalamic radiation a fiber system joining the thalamus and the hypothalamic region.
tegmental radiation fibers radiating laterally from the nucleus ruber.
thalamic r's fibers streaming out through the lateral surface of the thalamus, through the internal capsule to the cerebral cortex.
ultraviolet radiation the portion of the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation of wavelengths between 0.39 and 0.18 μm; see also ultraviolet rays.

ra·di·a·tion

radiophobia.

ra·di·a·tion

(rā'dē-ā'shŭn),
1. The act or condition of diverging in all directions from a center.
2. The sending forth of light, short radio waves, ultraviolet rays or x-rays, or any other rays for treatment, diagnosis, or another purpose. Compare: irradiation (2).
3. Synonym(s): radiatio
4. A ray.
5. Radiant energy or a radiant beam.
[L. radiatio, fr. radius, ray, beam]

radiation

(rā′dē-ā′shən)
n.
1. The act or process of radiating: the radiation of heat and light from a fire.
2. Physics
a. Emission or propagation of energy in the form of waves or particles.
b. Energy radiated or transmitted in the form of waves or particles.
c. A stream of particles or electromagnetic waves emitted by the atoms and molecules of a radioactive substance as a result of nuclear decay.
3.
a. The act of exposing or the condition of being exposed to such energy.
b. The application of such energy, as in medical treatment.
4. Anatomy Radial arrangement of parts, as of a group of nerve fibers connecting different areas of the brain.
5. Adaptive radiation

ra′di·a′tion·al, ra′di·a′tive adj.
The combined processes of emission, transmission and absorption of highly energetic waves and particles on the electromagnetic spectrum; well-known effects of radiation include changes in cells, especially those with rapid turnover—e.g., colon, haematopoietic tissues
Medspeak The direct, band-like extension of a sensation, in particular of pain, from a point of origin to another region of the body
Oncology The administration of ionizing radiation to kill malignant tumour cells
Physics An emission of energy in the form of photons—gamma, x-rays; particles—alpha, beta, positrons, neutrons or waves—heat, light, radio waves and microwaves

radiation

The combined processes of emission, transmission and absorption of highly energetic waves and particles on the electromagnetic spectrum treatment to kill cancer cells. See Acute radiation injury, Alpha radiation, Background radiation, Chemoradiation, Coherent radiation, Corpuscular radiation, Definitive radiation, Electromagnetic radiation, External radiation, Gamma radiation, Grenz radiation, Implant radiation, Internal radiation, Ionizing radiation, Non-ionizing radiation, Remnant radiation, Scattered radiation, Synchrotron radiation, Total body irradiation Clinical practice The direct, band-like extension of a sensation, in particular of pain, from a point of origin to another region of the body. Cf Referred pain Oncology The administration of ionizing radiation to kill malignant tumor cells. See Radiation fibrosis, Radiation therapy.
Radiation  
Alpha radiation 2 protons and 2 neutrons, eg plutonium, radon; α radiation travels 15 cm in air and is stopped by a piece of paper; proven role in soft tissue malignancy–see Radium Dial company, relationship with epithelial malignancy is uncertain; it is present in cigarette smoke and may have an additive effect to the known carcinogenic effect of tar; emitted by radium, thorium, uranium.
Beta radiation Electrons, eg strontium-90, tritium–3H; β radiation travels at the speed of light, is stopped by wood and thin metals and is carcinogenic to skin
Gamma radiation Gamma photon A quantum of electromagnetic radiation of ≤ 1 nm, which is generated by unstable nuclei eg 60Co; γ radiation is stopped by several feet of heavy concrete or 10-40 cm of lead and is linked to cancer, inducing mutations at the glycophorin A locus in survivors of atomic blasts; 183/105 excess deaths in survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki blasts, with a 13-fold ↑ in non-lymphocytic leukemia–peaking at 6 yrs post-blast, thyroid nodules and tumors–peaking at 15-20 years post-blast and multiple myeloma 6-fold ↑–peaking 30 yrs post-blast

ra·di·a·tion

(rā'dē-ā'shŭn)
1. The act or condition of diverging in all directions from a center.
2. The sending forth of light, short radio waves, ultraviolet or x-rays, or any other rays for treatment or diagnosis or for other purpose.
Compare: irradiation (2)
3. Synonym(s): radiatio.
4. A ray.
5. Radiant energy or a radiant beam.
[L. radiatio, fr. radius, ray, beam]

radiation

The emission and almost instantaneous propagation of electromagnetic waves ranging in wavelength from thousands of metres (radio waves) to millionths of millionths of millimetres (gamma rays). Radiation of long wavelength may cause body atoms and molecules to vibrate but does not, so far as is known, significantly damage them (non-ionizing radiation). Very short wavelength radiation, such as X-rays and gamma rays (ionizing radiation), however, can knock out linking electrons from molecules, causing them to separate into smaller charged bodies or chemical groups called ions, or FREE RADICALS. Ionizing radiation can damage any body molecules, including DNA, and this may kill cells or alter their genetic structure. Such mutations in surviving cells may lead to cancer. At the same time, rapidly dividing cancer cells are more susceptible to the effects of ionizing radiation than normal cells. This is the basis of RADIOTHERAPY.

radiation

the electromagnetic energy that travels through empty space with the speed of light (2×108 ms -1). All objects emit radiation, at room temperature mostly in the infrared range, whereas at high temperatures visible radiation is produced. See ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM, ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT, X-RAY.

radiation 

1. Emission or transfer of energy in the form of electromagnetic waves or particles.
2. A group of nerve fibres that diverge in all directions from a point of origin. Example: the optic radiations. See electromagnetic spectrum.

ra·di·a·tion

(rā'dē-ā'shŭn)
1. Sending forth light, short radio waves, ultraviolet rays or x-rays, or any other rays for treatment, diagnosis, or another purpose.
2. Act or condition of diverging in all directions from a center.
[L. radiatio, fr. radius, ray, beam]

Patient discussion about radiation

Q. Is an X- Ray dangerous to my fetus? I fell down while I am pregnant and was sent to the ER. I was given an x- ray there, is the radiation dangerous to my fetus?

A. As far as I know one x-ray cannot harm your fetus since there is not enough radiation there to harm it. If you are worried consult a Doctor.

Q. What does radiation do for cancer patients? We found out today that my grandmother has cancer and my mother said that the oncologist is planning on using radiation to ease her pain. My question is, what does radiation do? I know, eases pain, but how?

A. hello;radiation therapy/an anticancer drugs are used to suppress or arrest the rate of cell division in any tumor cells, the rad also kills good cells also.

Q. Is it proven that cellular radiation can damage health?

A. it was proven that people that talk a lot with cellular phones tend to develop problems in their salivary gland (the Parotid gland, right under the ear)that is on the side they speak the most.
http://www.newsinferno.com/archives/2163

could be that in 15 years from now the amount of brain cancer will increase and they will know for sure it's from cellular phones. , why take a chance- use as less as possible, use an earphone and don't give a cellular phone to your children until they are 17.
you can never know what will they find next...

More discussions about radiation
References in periodicals archive ?
An experimental study on acute brain radiation injury: Dynamic changes in proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and the correlation with histopathology.
Prophylaxis against radiation injury: the use of elemental diet prior and during radiotherapy for invasive bladder cancer and early postoperative feeding following radical cystectomy and ileal conduit.
They are now focusing on remedies for other aspects of radiation injury, including problems with the gastrointestinal tract and the lungs.
Radiation injury of the rectum: evaluation of surgical treatment.
In these scenarios, the discovery of having been given a radiation dose is sometimes not realized until well after day 7, thus eliminating the opportunity for radiation injury and dose assessment using the classic early phase biomarker panel (CRP, neutrophils, lymphocytes, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, and serum amyloid A (SAA)).
Indications for imaging of the plexus include evaluation of neoplastic or inflammatory mass, traumatic injury, entrapment or nontraumatic compressive lesions, and distinguishing radiation injury from recurrent tumor.
A novel mouse model of cutaneous radiation injury. Plast Reconstr Surg.
INTRODUCTION: Indeed, the first medical report of radiation injury to GI tract was described by Walsh in 1897 just 2 years after the first description of the use of x-ray by Roentgen [1].
is a clinical-stage biotechnology company leveraging deep mechanistic understanding of the cell death process, apoptosis, to develop a robust pipeline of compounds primarily focused on oncology applications and mitigation of radiation injury. The Company's lead compound is being developed as both a radiation countermeasure and a cancer treatment.
Speaking on the occasion, Dr Madan Rehani, director of the European Society of Radiation, said that most medical professionals do not always recognise radiation injury and fail to arrive at a correct diagnosis.
The HMC plans to start follow-up on patients for radiation injury, after they have been through its catheterisation laboratory for treatment by radiation therapy, a senior official said yesterday.
Protecting these cells or improving their regeneration after injury could benefit patients who are undergoing bone marrow transplantation, plus others who suffer radiation injury from accidental environmental exposures such as the Japanese nuclear disaster in 2011.