RIPK3

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RIPK3

A gene on chromosome 14q11.2 that encodes a serine/threonine/ tyrosine kinase essential for cellular necroptosis in response to the TNF-alpha family of death-inducing cytokines. RIPK3 interacts with and phosphorylates RIPK1 to form a necrosis-inducing complex, binding to and enhancing the activity of GLUL, GLUD1 and PYGL (metabolic enzymes involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation), thereby increasing reactive oxygen species production.
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RIP3 is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein whose nuclear distribution is temperature-sensitive.
Of note, the repression of RIP1 by PPAR-[gamma] agonist is particularly important in this process as RIP1 not only forms heterodimer with RIP3 to recruit MLKL for execution of necroptosis but also mediates the degradation of I[kappa]B[alpha], resulting in activation of NF-[kappa]B and subsequent upregulation of cytokines, IL-1[beta], TNF-[alpha], and IL-6 [37].
To study the role of RIP3 in BMDMs death following LPS/ATP stimulation, we compared the release of LDH from [RIP3.sup.-/-], [RIP3.sup.-/-][Casp-1.sup.-/-], and WT BMDMs.
They found that SIRT2 binds constitutively to RIP3 and forms the RIP3-SIRT2 complex, whereas SIRT2 deletion or knockdown prevents TNF-induced necroptosis in L929 cells.
The mixed lineage kinase domain like protein (MLKL) has been shown to be an important substrate of RIP3 likely targeting functional downstream targets on cellular organelles such as mitochondria and/or lysosomes [22].
"Our results indicate that whatever caspase 8 was doing in the skin, removing RIP3 takes care of it," Mocarski added.
Su et al., "Mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein MLKL causes necrotic membrane disruption upon phosphorylation by RIP3," Molecular Cell, vol.
In this study, we for the first time confirmed that aspirin could remarkably alleviate the severity of SAP and protects against acinar cells necrosis by downregulation of RIP1, RIP3, and p-MLKL expressions.
Cui et al., "CaMKII is a RIP3 substrate mediating ischemia- and oxidative stress-induced myocardial necroptosis," Nature Medicine, vol.
Vince, "More to life than death: molecular determinants of necroptotic and non-necroptotic RIP3 kinase signaling," Current Opinion in Immunology, vol.
Recently, it was shown that a signaling cascade centered on the proteins RIP1 and RIP3 can trigger cell death by necrosis in many situations, and the RIP1-RIP3 complex appears to promote ATP depletion during necroptosis by impinging on components of the MPT pore [101, 102].
To investigate whether the observed necrosis in [Casp3.sup.-/-][ApoE.sup.-/-] BMDM can be classified as necroptosis (i.e., programmed necrosis regulated by RIP1 and RIP3), PI labeling experiments were conducted in the presence or absence of the necroptosis inhibitor Necrostatin-1 (Nec-1).