RET


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Ret

(ret),
Oncogene product defective in multiple endocrine neoplasia types IIA and IIB and Hirschsprung disease. It belongs to that class of membrane receptors with tyrosine kinase activity.

RET

A gene on chromosome 10q11.2 that encodes a receptor for tyrosine-protein kinase involved in various cellular processes, including cell proliferation and migration, neuronal navigation and cell differentiation, upon binding with glial-cell-derived neurotrophic factor family ligands. RET regulates cell death/survival, balance and positional information. It orchestrates molecular cascades during intestinal, gut neuroendocrine, gut MALT and renal organogenesis, and it modulates cell adhesion by cleaving caspase in sympathetic neurons and mediates cell migration in an integrin (e.g., ITGB1 and ITGB3)-dependent manner. RET triggers apoptosis by intracellular caspase cleavage; it promotes survival and downregulates growth hormone production, but triggers apoptosis in absence of GDNF.

Molecular pathology
RET mutations are associated with  neuroendocrine cancers, which are characterised by defects in integrin-regulated cell migration.

RET

Abbrev. for rearranged during TRANSFECTION.

retinoscopy (ret) 

The determination of the refractive state of the eye by means of a retinoscope. Syn. skiascopy; shadow test. See chromoretinoscopy.
dynamic retinoscopy Retinoscopy performed with the patient fixating binocularly a near object such as a letter, a word, or a picture mounted on, or held close to, the retinoscope and wearing the distance correction. No working distance lens power is subtracted or added to the finding since the plane of regard is at the same distance as the retinoscope. Syn. book retinoscopy (this term is restricted to the case when the patient is reading a text); cognitive retinoscopy (when the patient fixates a single letter or reads some words); near point retinoscopy. See lag of accommodation; objective accommodation; MEM retinoscopy; Mohindra's technique of retinoscopy; static retinoscopy.
MEM retinoscopy A type of dynamic retinoscopy in which the retinoscope is held in the same plane as the near fixation target and lenses are interposed very briefly in front of one eye, while the other eye fixates the target. The aim of the method is to estimate the fundus reflex motion without disturbing the accommodative stance, that is, by leaving each lens in front of one eye for less than one second, until the neutral point is achieved. The results in non-presbyopic subjects generally show a lag of accommodation of 0 to +0.75 D. Note: MEM is an acronym of 'monocular estimate method'.
Mohindra's technique of retinoscopy Retinoscopy performed in a darkened room at 50 cm (20 inches) with the patient fixating the retinoscope light monocularly (the other eye being occluded). Distance retinoscopic refraction is derived by adding −1.00 D (to take into account the working distance and the state of accommodation in the dark) to the value found by near retinoscopy. The technique is used in paediatric optometry. Syn. monocular near retinoscopy. See resting state of accommodation; dynamic retinoscopy; MEM retinoscopy.
near point retinoscopy See dynamic retinoscopy; Mohindra's technique of.
static retinoscopy Retinoscopy performed with the patient fixating a target at distance or with accommodation paralysed.
References in periodicals archive ?
Germline RET mutations in MEN 2A and FMTC and their detection by simple DNA diagnostic tests.
MSgt Steve Ingerick, USAF (Ret.), GM, Million Air Rome NY (KRME) * 800-400-1509 * singerick@millionair.com
Analyzing the correlation between RET mutation and classic prognostic parameters in papillary carcinoma, some authors demonstrated RET mutation to be present at a higher frequency in small, slow progressing and less aggressive tumors, and conclude that it may serve as a favorable marker in these tumors (16,17).
The two RETs are 60 meters wide and 310 meters long.
Experiment 2: short RET protocol with fasting periods before each RET session
Using next generation sequencing and transcriptome analysis, researchers have identified many PPGL susceptibility genes, which are classified into two clusters: cluster 1 (the angiogenic cluster) consists of EGLN1, PHD2, VHL, SDHX, IDH, HIF2A, EPAS1, FH, and MDH2, while cluster 2 (the kinase signaling cluster) includes KIF1B, RET, NF1, TMEM127, MAX, and MEN1 [4, 23].
The association between nuclear RET expression and OS lost significance when analysed in a dichotomised manner (p = 0.307).
RET Capital's lead investor is BlueMountain Capital Management, an investment firm focused on the global credit markets and equity derivatives markets.
Research conducted by ACF, The Climate Institute and WWF Australia found that the 'Dirty Three' stand to reap around $8 billion in profits if the RET is dismantled.
General (Ret.) Hugh Shelton--Former Chairman of US Joint Chiefs of Staff
But a weakened RET combined with the government's plan to repeal the carbon tax would shift new energy investments away from renewable sources to more coal-fired electricity, causing more pollution and making it hard to meet the climate target, according to observers.
When researchers blocked the ASCL1 protein in lung cancer cell lines expressing both genes, the level of RET decreased and tumor growth slowed.