RESEARCH AND TRAINING HOSPITAL (16.05.2006/435): TOTAL RECORDING TIME: 480 MIN, TOTAL SLEEP TIME: 376 MIN, SLEEP LATENCY: 2 MIN, REM LATENCY
: 6 MIN, DURATION OF WAKEFULNESS AFTER SLEEP: 67 MIN, THE PERCENTAGE OF SLEEP PERIOD 1: 23, THE PERCENTAGE OF SLEEP PERIOD 2: 35, THE PERCENTAGE OF SLEEP PERIOD 3: 14, THE PERCENTAGE OF REM SLEEP: 17, HYPOPNEA AND APNEA INDEXES: 0.9/HOUR, THE TOTAL LEG MOVEMENTS INDEX: 7/HOUR, PERIODIC LEG MOVEMENTS INDEX: 2/HOUR, OXYGEN DESATURATION INDEX: 0.6, AVERAGE OXYGEN SATURATION: %94, LOWEST OXYGEN SATURATION: %86.
How opioids influence sleep architecture in healthy subjects Opioid IV injection Oral (morphine- Heroin in (morphine)/ methadone) addicts intoxication REM sleep Decrease (5%) Decrease (50%) Decrease Slow wave sleep Decrease (75%) Decrease (30%) Decrease REM latency
Increase Total sleep time No change No change Decrease Wake after sleep onset No change No change Increase Sleep efficiency No change No change Decrease Note: Adapted from J Clin Sleep Med.
Also, REM latency
showed a significant negative correlation with BPRS total score ([r.sub.s] = -0.640, p = 0.002) and PANSS positive score ([r.sub.s] = -0.657, p = 0.002).
The reported parameters included sleep efficiency, wake after sleep onset (WASO), sleep latency, REM latency
, rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep, nonREM (NREM) sleep (stages 1-3), snoring sounds, apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), arousal index, spontaneous arousals, respiratory effort-related arousals (RERA), leg movement arousals, periodic leg movements in sleep (PLMS), PLMS in REM and NREM, oxygen saturation (Sp[O.sub.2]), and CT90.
Linkowski, "Shorter REM latency
associated with more sleep cycles of a shorter duration in healthy humans," Psychiatry Research, vol.
Polysomnography findings of the patient Total sleep time (min) 433 Sleep efficiency (%) 95.7 Sleep latency (min) 0.4 REM latency
(min) 4 Stage 1 sleep rate (%) (a) 5.8 Stage 2 sleep rate (%) (a) 39.7 Stage 3 sleep rate (%) (a) 37.8 REM rate (%) (a) 16.7 Apnea hypopnea index (event/hour) 2 (a) Percentage by total sleep time Table 2.
After adjusted for the difference in age by analysis of covariance, a shorter REM latency
was found in MSA-C with RBD than MSA-C without RBD (111.7 [+ or -] 48.2 vs.
Results: The sleep analysis revealed that alkaloid extract from MS did not change any REM parameters which included average duration of each REM episode, total REM time, number of REM episode and REM latency
whereas fluoxetine significantly suppressed all REM parameters and delayed REM latency
Nocturnal polysomnography (PSG) showed reduced average sleep latency at 6 to 8 minutes, increased number of awakenings, disturbed sleep-wake cycle, shortened REM latency
(the patient entered REM sleep immediately), and increased proportion of REM.
Sleep continuity indices included the total recording time (TRT; lights out to lights on in minutes), total sleep time (TST), sleep efficiency (TST divided by TRT), sleep latency (lights out to the first epoch of any sleep in minutes), REM latency
(sleep onset to the first epoch in REM stage in minutes), wake after sleep onset (WASO; Stage W during TRT minus sleep latency, in minutes), and arousal index (the number of arousals divided by TST).
A new video-polysomnographic (v-PSG) recording was obtained which disclosed a sleep latency of 18.5 min, REM latency
64 min, and reduced sleep efficiency (71.5%) with a percentage of wakefulness after sleep onset of 25.2% (calculated over sleep period time); PLMS index was 2.8/hour and the sleep respiratory pattern was normal (apnea/hypopnea index 1.8/hour).
The patient readily fell asleep (sleep latency to stage N1: 6 minutes) and showed a very short REM latency