Concomitant increase of angiogenic responses to RANK ligand
. J Biol Chem 2003;278:39548-57.
Effects of CUR on the Secretion Levels of Cytokines and RANK Ligand
. We developed an organ culture system in vitro and evaluated the protein levels of cytokines and RANK ligand
in the DMEM of cultured calvaria using ELISA.
Within the bone microenvironment, cytokines and growth factors secreted by tumor cells stimulate osteoblasts to overexpress RANK Ligand
. However, the tumor does not directly destroy bone but manipulates those cells that do (i.e., the osteoclast and osteoblast) (Drudge-Coates & Turner, 2013).
Osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor-[kappa]B (RANK), and RANK ligand
(RANKL), are proteins that regulate osteoclast formation and differentiation (Lacey et al., 1998, Hofbauer, 1999, Teitelbaum, 2000, Feng, 2005, Luo et al., 2006).
Two years ago, the FDA approved denosumab, a subcutaneous injectable agent that is a RANK ligand
XGEVA is the first and only RANK Ligand
inhibitor approved by the FDA indicated for the prevention of skeletal-related events (SREs) in patients with bone metastases from solid tumors.
The original 3-year results of FREEDOM were instrumental in winning marketing approval of the novel RANK ligand
inhibitor for the treatment of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis at high risk for fracture.
"By targeting RANK Ligand
, Prolia offers an innovative new approach that helps reduce fracture risk."
Further studies identified the RANK ligand
pathway as the key cell-signalling pathway responsible for the indirect control of breast stem cells in pregnancy.
Denosumab is the first fully human monoclonal antibody in late stage clinical development that specifically targets RANK Ligand
, an essential regulator of osteoclasts (the cells that break down bone).
Denosumab, a genetically engineered antibody, is designed to block the action of a protein called RANK Ligand
, which activates signals that lead to the breakdown of bones.
(1) A number of products elaborated by RA SF, including IL-8, IL-16, MCP-1, MIP-1a, and RANK ligand
serve as potent chemoattractants, drawing various inflammatory cells from the bloodstream into the joint.